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Portugal | Wikipedia audio article


Portugal Portuguese puto el officially the Portuguese Republic Portuguese Republic of Portuguese ax pub aydinlik puto es is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe it is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe it is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira both autonomous regions with their own regional governments Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe its territory having been continuously settled invaded and fought over since prehistoric times the pre Celts Celts Carthaginians and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and sube Germanic peoples Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 ad despite attempts at independence since its foundation as a county in 868 only after the Battle of Salma Mead in 11:28 where Portuguese forces led by Afonso Henriques defeated forces led by his mother Teresa of Portugal the county of Portugal affirmed its sovereignty and Henriques styled himself Prince of Portugal he would later be proclaimed King of Portugal at the Battle of Arak in 1139 and was recognized as such by neighbouring kingdoms on the Treaty of Zamora in 1143 in the 15th and 16th centuries Portugal established the first global Empire becoming one of the world’s major economic political and military powers during this period today referred to as the Age of Discovery Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King john ii with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope Cabo da boa Esperanza 1488 Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the sea route to India 14 97 to 98 and the European discovery of Brazil 1500 during this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade and the Empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia however events such as the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake the Industrial Revolution the Seven Years War the country’s occupation during the Napoleonic Wars and the independence of Brazil 1822 erased to an extent Portugal’s prior opulence after the 1910 Revolution deposed the monarchy the Democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established later being superseded by the estado novo right-wing authoritarian regime democracy was restored after the carnation revolution in 1974 ending the Portuguese colonial war shortly after independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe a legacy of 300 million Portuguese speakers and many portuguese-based creole a member of the United Nations and the European Union Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO the eurozone the OECD and the community of Portuguese language countries Portugal is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards it is the fourth most peaceful country in the world and its state is the 15th most stable one maintained under a unitary semi-presidential Republican form of government additionally the country ranks highly in terms of democracy tenth social progress twentieth prosperity twenty-fifth press freedom 14th moral freedom third LGBTI rights seventh in Europe ease of doing business 29th and road network second topic etymology the word Portugal derives from the Roman Celtic place name porta scale Portus the Latin word for Porter Harbour cholera or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess in Scotland she is known as berra and also the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River present-day vila nova de gaia which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal at the time the land of a specific people was frequently named after its deity those names are the origins of the gal in Portugal and Alicia incidentally the meaning of kale or kaya is also a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm very old links to pre-roman Celtic languages which compared to today’s Irish called– or Scottish kala both meaning port some French scholars believe it may have come from Portus galas the port of the Gauls accounts around 200 BC the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War and in the process conquered kale and renamed it porta scale port of kale incorporating it to the province of Gallia with capital in Braca augusta modern-day Braga Portugal during the Middle Ages the region around Porta scale became known by the suebian Visigoths as porta kale the name porta caeli evolved into Portugal during the 7th and 8th centuries and by the ninth century that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers d’Oro and minho by the 11th and 12th centuries Portugal Portugal Lea or pork galley a was already referred to as Portugal topic history topic prehistory the early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in southwestern Europe the name of Portugal derives from the joint Romano Celtic name Porta scale the region was settled by pre Celts and Celts giving origin to peoples like the Galilei Chi Lusitania pnes Celtic II and sinx visited by Phoenicians ancient Greeks and Carthaginians incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of gallaecia after 45 BC until 298 ad the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and then by Homo sapiens who roamed the borderless region of the northern Iberian Peninsula these were subsistence societies that although they did not establish prosperous settlements did form organized societies Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of hurting animals the raising of some cereal crops and flooville our marine fishing it is believed by some scholars that early in the 1st millennium BC several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and intermarried with the local populations forming different tribes modern archaeology and research shows a Portuguese route to the Celts in Portugal and elsewhere during that period and until the Roman invasions the Castro culture a variation of the urn field culture aka or nymph elder Coulter was prolific in Portugal in modern Galicia this culture together with the surviving elements of the Atlantic megalithic culture and the contributions that come from the more western Mediterranean cultures end up in what has been called the cultura Castro or Castro culture this denomination refers to the characteristic Celtic populations called doin doin or Donne in Gaelic and that the Romans called castra in their chronicles based on the Roman chronicles about the ecology peoples along with the levorg a Bala aren narrations and the interpretation of the abundant archaeological remains throughout the northern half of Portugal and valishia it is possible to infer that theirs was a matriarchal society with a military and religious aristocracy probably a feudal type the figures of maximum authority were the chieftain cheff a tribal of military type and with authority in his Castro or clan and the druid main referring medical and religious that could be common to several troz the celtic cosmogony remained homogenious due to the ability of the druids to meet in councils with the druids of other areas which ensured the transmission of knowledge in the most significant events the first documentary references to castro society are provided by chroniclers of roman military campaigns such as Strabo Herodotus are plenty the elder among others about the social organization and describing the inhabitants of these territories the Galilee of northern Portugal is a group of barbarians who spend the day fighting and the night eating drinking and dancing under the moon other similar tribes and chief among them were the Lusitania pne’s with the core area of these people lying in inland central Portugal numerous other related tribes existed such as the Celtic II of Alentejo and the sine X our Connie of the Algarve among the tribes are subdivisions where the brach re Co Eleni equally grow V interim Ichi Luna Luang key le’me G nar basi Nemeton t pass or e Quaqua knee Sorby Tama Ghani top holy tur dually tur do leave it eries turtle Orem a PITA karati and Zoe Lee a few small semi-permanent commercial coastal settlements such as tavira were also founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians Carthaginians topic román Lusitania and gallaecia Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC the Carthaginians Rome’s adversary in the Punic Wars were expelled from their coastal colonies during the last days of Julius Caesar almost the entire Peninsula was annexed to the Roman Republic the Roman conquest of what is now part of Portugal took almost 200 years and took many lives of young soldiers and the lives of those who were sentenced to a certain death in the slave mines when not sold his slaves to other parts of the Empire it suffered a severe setback in 155 BC when a rebellion began in the north the Lusitania pnes and other native tribes under the leadership of Erie at this wrested control of all of Western Iberia Rome sent numerous legions and its best generals to Lusitania to quell the rebellion but to no avail the Lusitania pnes kept conquering territory the Roman leaders decided to change their strategy they bribed virya ‘this his allies to kill him in 139 BC theory at this was assassinated and tunnel s became leader Rome installed a colonial regime the complete romanization of Lusitania only took place in the Visigothic era in 27 BC Lusitania gained the status of Roman province later a northern province of Lusitania was formed known as gallaecia with capital in Bracker augusta today’s Braga there are still many ruins of Castro’s hill forts all over modern Portugal and remains of Castro culture numerous Roman sites are scattered around present-day Portugal some urban remains are quite large like cannon briga and Marat Braga the former beyond being one of the largest Roman settlements in Portugal is also classified as a National Monument cannon briga lies 16 kilometres nine point nine miles from Coimbra which by its turn was the ancient ammonium the site also has a museum that displays objects found by archaeologists during their excavations several works of engineering such as baths temples bridges roads circus theaters and laymen’s homes are preserved throughout the country coins some of which coined in Lusitania land as well as numerous pieces of romics were also found contemporary historians include paulus or osseous see 375 to 400 18 and hi dashes see 400 to 469 bishop of aqua flavy a who reported on the final years of the Roman rule in arrival of the Germanic tribes topic Germanic kingdoms sube and Visigoths in the early 5th century Germanic tribes namely the subi and the Vandals Selene Guillen has Nene together with their allies thus our nations and Alan’s invaded the Iberian Peninsula where they would form their Kingdom the kingdom of the sube was the Germanic post-roman Kingdom established in the former Roman provinces of gallaecia Lusitania 5th century vestiges of Alan’s settlements were found in a Lange ker from Old Germanic Alan Kirk temple of the Alan’s Coimbra and Lisbon about 410 and during the 6th century it became a formally declared kingdom of the subi where King her Marik made a peace treaty with the Galicians before passing his domains to Ricola his son in 448 regula died leaving the state in expansion to rekey are after the defeat against the Visigoths the suebian kingdom was divided with Franta nanda gweal foe ruling simultaneously both reigned from 456 to 457 the year in which mal Drew’s 457 to 459 reunified the kingdom to finish being assassinated after a failed Roman Visigothic conspiracy although the conspiracy did not achieve its true purposes the suebian kingdom was again divided between two kings Froome our crew mario 459 – 463 and Remy’s Mundo son of mal drous 459 – 469 who would re reunify his father’s Kingdom in 463 and that he would be forced to adopt Arianism in 465 due to the Visigoths influence by the year 500 the Visigothic Kingdom had been installed in Iberia based in Toledo and advancing westwards they became a threat to the suebian rule after the death of remiz meant Rama’s mundo in 469 the dark period set in where virtually all written texts and accounts disappear this period lasted until 550 the only thing known about this period is that Thea daemon Tia demondo most probably ruled the sabaeans the dark period ended with the reign of carrier Eko 552 559 who reinstalled Catholicism in 550 he was succeeded by Thea damar or Thea demur teodomiro 559 to 570 during his reign the first count of braga 561 was held the council’s represented in advance in the organization of the territory / OEM sue forum suebian parish and the Christianization of the pagan population – correction rusta quorum under the auspices of st.Martin of Braga Salle Martin ho de Braga after the death of teodomiro mural 572 583 was his successor during his reign the Second Council of Braga 572 was held the Visigothic civil war began in 577 Miro intervened later in 583 he also organized an unsuccessful expedition to reconquer Seville during the return from this failed operation the Miro died in the suebian kingdom many internal struggles continued to take place Ebury coat Yuriko 583 to 584 was dethroned by Endeca a deca 584 to 585 who failed to prevent the Visigothic invasion led by liova gildo the Visigothic invasion completed in 585 turned the once rich and fertile kingdom of the sube into the sixth province of the gothic kingdom Leo vigil was crowned king of gallaecia Hispania and galleon Arbonne Ensis for the next 300 years and by the year 700 the entire Iberian Peninsula was ruled by the Visigoths under the Visigoths gallaecia was a well-defined space governed by a Doge of its own doges at this time were related to the monarchy acted as princes in all matters both governors Wamba and wit ISA visa acted as Doge and would end up being Kings in Toledo these two became known as the vegans who headquartered in the northwest and called on the arab invaders from the south to be their allies in the struggle for power in 711 King Roderic Rodrigo was killed while opposing this invasion thus becoming the last Visigothic king of Iberia from the various Germanic groups who settled in Western Iberia the sube left the strongest lasting cultural legacy in what is today Portugal kaliesha and Asturias according to Dan Stanislavski the Portuguese way of living in regions north of the Tagus has mostly inherited from the sube in which small farms prevailed distinct from the large properties of southern Portugal Brock ara Augusta the modern city of Braga and former capital of gallaecia became the capital of the sube or seus at that time resident in Hispania shows a rather pacific initial settlement the newcomers working their lands are serving as bodyguards of the locals another Germanic group that accompanied the suebian settled in gallaecia were the berry’ they settled in the region between the rivers Cavuto and Hama in the area known as Terrace Tabora lands of the brewery topic Islamic period in the Reconquista today’s modern-day continental Portugal along with most of modern Spain was part of al-andalus between 71 1 to 49 following the Umayyad Caliphate conquest of the Iberian Peninsula in 711 this occupation lasted from some decades in the north to 5 centuries in the south after defeating the Visigoths in only a few months the Umayyad Caliphate started expanding rapidly in the peninsula beginning in 711 the land that is now Portugal became part of the vast umayyad caliphates Empire of Damascus which stretched from the Indus River in the Indian subcontinent up to the South of France until it’s collapse in 750 that year the west of the Empire gained its independence under Abba dar Rahman I with the establishment of the emirate of Cordoba after almost two centuries the emirate became the Caliphate of córdoba in 929 until it’s dissolution a century later in 1031 into no less than 23 small kingdoms called taifa kingdoms the governors of the taifas each proclaimed themselves Emir of their provinces and established diplomatic relations with the Christian kingdoms of the north most of Portugal fell into the hands of the taifa of Badajoz of the AFT ASSA dynasty and after a short spell of an ephemeral type of Lisbon in 1022 fell under the Dominion of the taifa of Seville of the Abbott it’s poets the taifa period ended with the conquest of the Almoravids who came from Morocco in 1086 winning a decisive victory at the Battle of Segura has followed a century later in 1147 after the second period of typhus by the almohads also from marrakech al-andalus was divided into different districts called kura garb al-andalus at its largest was constituted of ten chorus each with a distinct capital and governor the main cities of the period in Portugal were bata Silves al kaiser do sal Santarem and Lisbon the Muslim population of the region consisted mainly of native Iberian converts to Islam the so called mullah d’Or Malati and Berbers the Arabs were principally noblemen from Syria and Oman and though few in numbers they constituted the elite of the population the Berbers were originally from the Atlas Mountains and rift mountains of north freaka and were nomads topic county of porta kale anis Turan Visigothic Nobel named Pelagius of Asturias in 718 was elected leader by many of the ousted Visigoths nobles Pelagius called for the remnant of the Christian Visigothic armies to rebel against the Moors and regroup in the Unconquered northern Asturian Highlands better known today as the Cantabrian mountains in what is today the small mountain region in northwestern Spain adjacent to the Bay of Biscay Pelagius plan was to use the Cantabrian mountains as a place of refuge and protection from the invading Moors he then aimed to regroup the Iberian Peninsula is Christian armies and used the Cantabrian mountains as a springboard from which to regain their lands in the process after defeating the Moors in the Battle of Covadonga in 722 Pelagius was proclaimed king thus founding the Christian kingdom of Asturias and starting the war of Christian reconquest known in Portuguese as the Reconquista Crysta at the end of the ninth century the region of Portugal between the rivers minho and oro was freed or reconquered from the Moors by the Mara Perez on the orders of King Alfonso the 3rd of Asturias finding that the region had previously had two major cities Porta scale in the coast in Braga in the interior with many towns that were now deserted he decided to repopulate and rebuild them with Portuguese and Galician refugees and other Christians apart from the Arabs from the south the coastal regions in the north were also attacked by Norman and Viking raiders mainly from 840 for the last great invasion through the Minho River ended with the defeat of olaf ii haraldson in 1014 against the Galician nobility who also stopped further advances into the county of Portugal the Mara Perez organized the region he had reconquered and elevated it to the status of county naming it the county of Portugal after the region’s major port city port a scale or modern port to one of the first cities vimar appear as founded at this time as vimar reigns known today as gimr ista birthplace of the portuguese nation or the cradle city sedate Berko in portuguese after annexing the county of portugal into one of the several counties that made up the kingdom of Asturias King Alfonso the third of Asturias knighted the Mara Paris in 868 as the first count of porta scale portugal the region became known as porta kale portugal and simultaneously porta Galia the county of portugal later the kingdom of Asturias was divided into a number of Christian kingdoms in northern iberia due to dynastic divisions of inheritance among the king’s offspring with the forced abdication of Alfonso the 3rd the great of Asturias by his sons in 910 the kingdom of Asturias split into three separate kingdoms the three kingdoms were eventually reunited in 924 under the crown of Leone in 1093 Alfonso the sixth of Leone bestowed the county to Henry of Burgundy and married him to his daughter Teresa of Leon for his role in recon kering the land for moors henry based his newly formed county in Bracker at augusta modern Braga capital city of the ancient roman province and also previous capital of several kingdoms over the first millennia topic a phone scene era on the 24th of June 11:28 the Battle of Salma Mead occurred near gimr ace Afonso Henriques count of Portugal defeated his mother countess Teresa and her lover for now Perez de travail thereby establishing himself as sole leader Afonso then turned his arms against the Moors in the south a fun Zoe’s campaigns were successful in on the 25th of July 1139 he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of re and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers this is traditionally taken as the occasion when the county of Portugal as a fief of the Kingdom of Leon was transformed into the independent Kingdom of Portugal Afonso then established the first of the Portuguese Cortes at La may go where he was crowned by the Archbishop of Braga though the validity of the Cortes of La may go has been disputed and called a myth created during the Portuguese restoration war Afonso was recognized in 1143 by King Alfonso the seventh of Leon and in 1179 by Pope Alexander the third during the Reconquista period Christians reconquered the Iberian Peninsula from Moorish domination Afonso Henriques and his successors aided by military monastic orders pushed southward to drive out the Moors at this time Portugal covered about half of its present area in 1249 the Reconquista ended with the capture of the Algarve and complete expulsion of the last Moorish settlements on the southern coast giving Portugal its present-day borders with minor exceptions in one of these situations of conflict with the kingdom of Castile diniz the first of Portugal signed with the king Fernando the fourth of Castile which was represented when being a minor by his mother the queen maria de molina the Treaty of al Kinesis 1297 which stipulated that Portugal abolished agreed treaties against the kingdom of Castile for supporting the infant Juan de Castilla this treaty established inter alia the border demarcation between the kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of Leon where the disputed town of olivenza was included the reigns of Dennis the first Dennis the first Afonso the fourth Alphonse IV and Pedro the first Peter the first for the most part sought peace with the Christian kingdoms of Iberia in 1348 and 1349 portugal like the rest of europe was devastated by the black death in 1373 portugal made an alliance with england which is the longest-standing alliance in the world over time this went far beyond geopolitical and military cooperation protecting both nations interests in Africa the Americas and Asia against French Spanish and Dutch rivals and maintains strong trade and cultural ties between the two old European allies particularly in the Oporto region there is visible English influence to this day topic joaneen era and age of discoveries in 1383 John the first of Castille husband of Beatrice of Portugal and son-in-law of Ferdinand the first of Portugal claimed the throne of Portugal a faction of petty noblemen and commoners led by John of Avice later King John the first of Portugal and commanded by general Nuno álvares pereira defeated the Castilians in the battle of algebra de with this battle the house of abbas became the ruling House of Portugal Portugal spearheaded European exploration of the world in the age of discovery Prince Henry the Navigator son of King G while the first became the main sponsor and patron of this endeavor during this period Portugal explored the Atlantic Ocean discovering several Atlantic archipelagos like the Azores Madeira and Cape Verde explored the African coast colonized selected areas of Africa discovered an Eastern route to India via the Cape of Good Hope discovered Brazil explored the Indian Ocean established trading routes throughout most of southern Asia and sent the first direct European maritime trade and diplomatic missions to China and Japan in 1415 Portugal acquired the first of its overseas colonies by conquering Suda the first prosperous Islamic trade center in North Africa there followed the first discoveries in the Atlantic Madeira and the Azores which led to the first colonization movements throughout the 15th century Portuguese explorers sailed the coast of Africa establishing trading posts for several common types of tradable commodities at the time ranging from gold to slaves as they looked for a route to India and its spices which were coveted in Europe the Treaty of Tordesillas intended to resolve the dispute that had been created following the return of Christopher Columbus was made by Pope Alexander the 6th the mediator between Portugal and Spain it was signed on the 7th of June 1494 and divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the two countries along a Meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa in 1498 Vasco da Gama reached India and brought economic prosperity to Portugal and its population of 1.7 million residents helping to start the Portuguese Renaissance in 1500 the Portuguese Laurer Gaspar corte-real reached what is now Canada and founded the town of Portugal Cove Street Philips Newfoundland and Labrador long before the French and English in the 17th century and being just one of many Portuguese colonization’s of the Americas in 1500 pedro álvares cabral discovered brazil and claimed it for portugal ten years later Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Goa in India Muscat and or Moo’s in the Persian Strait in Malacca now estate in Malaysia thus the Portuguese Empire held dominion over Commerce in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Portuguese sailors set out to reach eastern Asia by sailing eastward from Europe landing in such places as Taiwan Japan the island of Timor and in the Moluccas although for a long period it was believed the Dutch were the first Europeans to arrive in Australia there is also some evidence that the Portuguese may have discovered Australia in 1521 the Treaty of Zaragoza signed on the 22nd of April 1529 between Portugal and Spain specified the ante meridian to the line of demarcation specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas all these factors made Portugal one of the world’s major economic military and political powers from the 15th century until the late 16th century topic Iberian Union restoration and early Brigantine era Portugal voluntarily entered a dynastic union between 1580 and 1640 this occurred because the last two kings of the house of Abbas King Sebastian who died in the battle of Alki circa Libya in Morocco and his great-uncle and successor King Cardinal Henry of Portugal both died without heirs resulting in the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 subsequently philip ii of spain claimed the throne and was accepted as philip the first of Portugal Portugal did not lose its formal independence briefly forming a union of kingdoms at this time Spain was a geographic territory the joining of the two crowns deprived Portugal of an independent foreign policy and led to its involvement in the eighty years war between Spain and the Netherlands war led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal’s oldest ally England and the loss of Hormuz a strategic trading post located between Iran and Oman from fifteen ninety five to 1663 the Dutch Portuguese War primarily involved the Dutch companies invading many Portuguese colonies and commercial interests in Brazil Africa India and the Far East resulting in the loss of the Portuguese Indian sea trade monopoly in 1640 John the fourth spearheaded an uprising backed by disgruntled Nobles and was proclaimed king the Portuguese restoration war ended the 60-year period of the Iberian Union under the House of Habsburg this was the beginning of the house of Braganza which reigned in Portugal until 1910 King John the fourths eldest son came to reign as Afonso the sixth however his physical and mental disabilities left him overpowered by luis de Vasconcelos he Sousa third count of Costello melhor in a palace coup organized by the Kings wife Maria Francisca of Savoy and his brother Pedro Duke of Beja King of thongs owed the sixth was declared mentally incompetent and exiled first to the Azores and then to the Royal Palace of sintra outside Lisbon after Afonso ‘s death Pedro came to the throne as King Pedro the second Pedro’s reign saw the consolidation of national independence imperial expansion and investment in domestic production pedro ii son john v saw rain character by the influx of gold into the coffers of the royal treasury supplied largely by the royal fifth attacks on precious metals that was received from the Portuguese colonies of Brazil and Moran how acting as an absolute monarch John nearly depleted his country’s tax revenues on ambitious architectural works most notably mafra palace and on commissions and additions for his sizeable art and literary collections official estimates and most estimates made so far placed the number of Portuguese migrants to colonial Brazil during the gold rush of the 18th century at 600,000 this represented one of the largest movements of European populations to their colonies in the Americas during colonial times topic pombaline era and enlightenment in 1738 sebastião josé de carvalho mlo first Marquis of Pombal began a diplomatic career as the portuguese ambassador in London and later in Vienna the Queen consort of Portugal Archduchess Maria and Josefa of Austria was fond of Mela and after his first wife died she arranged the widowed de Melo second marriage to the daughter of the Austrian Field Marshal Leopold Josef Count von Don King John the fifth of Portugal however was not pleased and recalled Mello to Portugal in 1749 John the fifth died the following year in his son Joseph the first of Portugal was crowned in contrast to his father Joseph the first was fond of de Melo and with the Queen Mother’s approval he appointed Mello as Minister of Foreign Affairs as the Kings confidence in de Mello increased the King entrusted him with more control of the state by 1755 sebastião de Mello was made prime minister impressed by British economic success that he had witnessed from his time as an ambassador he successfully implemented similar economic policies in Portugal he abolished slavery in Portugal and in the Portuguese colonies in India reorganized the army and the Navy restructured the University of Coimbra and ended discrimination against different Christian sects in Portugal but sebastião de mellows greatest reforms were economic and financial with the creation of several companies and guilds to regulate every commercial activity he demarcate the region for production of port to ensure the wines quality and this was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe he ruled with a strong hand by imposing strict law upon all classes of Portuguese society from the high nobility to the poorest working class along with a widespread review of the country’s tax system these reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes especially among the high nobility who despised him as a social upstart disaster fell upon Portugal in the morning of the 1st of November 1755 when Lisbon was struck by a violent earthquake with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.5 to 9 the city was razed to the ground by the earthquake in the subsequent tsunami and ensuing fires sebastião de Mello survived by a stroke of luck and then immediately embarked on rebuilding the city with his famous quote what now we bury the dead and take care of the living despite the calamity and huge death toll Lisbon suffered no epidemics and within less than one year was already being rebuilt the new city center of Lisbon was designed to resist subsequent earthquakes architectural models were built for tests and the effects of an earthquake were simulated by marching troops around the models the buildings and big squares of the pombaline city centre still remained as one of Lisbon’s tourist attractions Sebastiao de melo also made an important contribution to the study of seismology by designing an inquiry that was sent to every parish in the country following the earthquake Joseph the first gave his Prime Minister even more power and Sebastia de Mello became a powerful progressive dictator as his power grew his enemies increased in number and bitter disputes with the high nobility became frequent in 1758 Joseph the first was wounded in an attempted assassination the Tavor family and the Duke of Aveiro were implicated and executed after a quick trial the Jesuits were expelled from the country and their assets confiscated by the crown sebastião de Mello prosecuted every person involved even women and children this was the final stroke that broke the power of the aristocracy Joseph the first made his loyal Minister count of O’Hara’s in 1759 in 1762 Spain invaded Portuguese territory as part of the Seven Years War but by 1763 the status quo between Spain and Portugal before the war had been restored following the Tavor affair the new count of OE Arras knew no opposition made Marquis of Pombal in 1770 he effectively ruled Portugal until Joseph the first death in 1779 the new ruler Queen Maria the first of Portugal disliked the Marquise because of the power he amassed and never forgave him for the ruthlessness with which he dispatched the Tavor a family and upon her accession to the throne she withdrew all his political offices the Marquis of Pombal died on his estate at Pombal in 1782 however historians also argue that pombles enlightenment while far-reaching was primarily a mechanism for enhancing autocracy at the expense of individual liberty and especially an apparatus for crushing opposition suppressing criticism and furthering colonial economic exploitation as well as intensifying book censorship and consolidating personal control and profit topic Napoleonic era in the autumn of 1807 Napoleon moved French troops through Spain to invade Portugal from 1807 to 1811 British Portuguese forces would successfully fight against the French invasion of Portugal while the royal family and the Portuguese nobility including Maria the first relocated to the Portuguese territory of Brazil at that time a colony of the Portuguese Empire in South America this episode is known as the transfer of the Portuguese court to Brazil with the occupation by Napoleon Portugal began a slow but inexorable decline that lasted until the 20th century this decline was hastened by the independence in 1822 of the country’s largest colonial possession Brazil in 1807 as Napoleon’s army closed in on Lisbon the Prince Regent jwow the sixth of Portugal transferred his court to Brazil and established Rio de Janeiro as the capital of the Portuguese Empire in 1815 Brazil was declared a kingdom and the Kingdom of Portugal was united with it forming a plura continental state the United Kingdom of Portugal Brazil and the Algarve’s as a result of the change in its status and the arrival of the Portuguese royal family Brazilian administrative civic economical military educational and scientific apparatus were expanded and highly modernised Portuguese and their allied British troops fought against the French invasion of Portugal and by 1815 the situation in Europe had cooled down sufficiently that govt would have been able to return safely to Lisbon however the King of Portugal remained in Brazil until the liberal revolution of 1820 which started in Porto demanded his return to Lisbon in 1821 thus he returned to Portugal but left his son Pedro in charge of Brazil when the Portuguese government attempted the following year to return the kingdom of Brazil to subordinate status his son Pedro with the overwhelming support of the Brazilian elite declared Brazil’s independence from Portugal sis Platina today’s sovereign state of Uruguay in the South was one of the last additions to the territory of Brazil under Portuguese rule Brazilian independence was recognized in 1825 whereby Emperor Pedro the first granted to his father the titular honor emperor of Brazil John the six death in 1826 caused serious questions in his succession though Pedro was his heir and reigned briefly as Pedro the fourth his status as a Brazilian monarch was seen as an impediment to holding the Portuguese throne by both nations Pedro abdicated in favor of his daughter Maria the second however Pedro’s brother Infante Miguel claimed the throne in protest after a proposal for Miguel and Maria to marry failed Miguel seized power as king Miguel de frst in 1828 in order to defend his daughter’s rights to the throne Pedro launched the liberal Wars to reinstall his daughter and establish a constitutional monarchy in Portugal the war ended in 1834 with Miguel’s defeat the promulgation of the constitution and the reinstatement of Queen Maria the second topic constitutional monarchy queen maria ii mary ii and king ferdinand ii son King Pedro v Peter v modernized the country during his short reign 1853 to 1861 under his reign Rhodes Telegraph’s and railways were constructed and improvements in public health advanced his popularity increased went during the cholera outbreak of 1853 to 1856 he visited hospitals handing out gifts and comforting the sick Pedro’s reign was short as he died of cholera in 1861 after a series of deaths in the royal family including his two brothers Infante Fernando and Infante Zhao Duke of Beja and his wife Stephanie of Hohenzollern sigmaringen not having children his brother Louis I of Portugal Louis the first ascended the throne and continued his modernisation at the height of European colonialism in the 19th century Portugal had already lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia Luanda Benguela Bissau la renko Marcos poor to Amboy man the island of Mozambique were among the oldest Portuguese founded port cities in its African territories during this phase Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation sized territories to compete with other European powers there with the conference of Berlin of 1884 Portuguese Africa territories had their borders formally established on request of Portugal in order to protect the centuries-long Portuguese interests in the continent from rivalries enticed by the Scramble for Africa portuguese africa’s cities and towns like nova lisboa saw da bandeira Silva Porto Malan je tete Vila Junqueira Vila Perry and Villa Cabral were founded or redeveloped inland during this period and beyond new coastal towns like Barra MOCA meets libido Jawad Belo Nicola and Porto Amelia were also founded even before the turn of the 20th century railway tracks as the Benguela railway in Angola and the Bera railway in Mozambique started to be built to link coastal areas and selected inland regions other episodes during this period of the Portuguese presence in Africa include the 1890 British ultimatum this forced the Portuguese military to retreat from the land between the Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola most of present-day Zimbabwe and Zambia which had been claimed by Portugal and included in it pink map which clashed with British aspirations to create a Cape to Cairo railway the Portuguese territories in Africa were Cape Verde South o’may and príncipe Portuguese Guinea Angola and Mozambique the tiny fortress of Sasha why Baptista de ayuda on the coast of Dahomey was also under Portuguese rule in addition Portugal still ruled the Asian territories of Portuguese India Portuguese Timor in Macau on the 1st of February 1908 the kingdom Carlos the first of Portugal and his heir apparent Prince royal dom luis felipe duke of braganza were murdered in lisbon under his rule portugal had twice been declared bankrupt on the 14th of june 1892 and again on the 10th of May 1902 causing social turmoil economic disturbances protests revolts in criticism of the monarchy manuel ii of portugal became the new king but was eventually overthrown by the 5th of October 1910 revolution which abolished the regime and instated republicanism in Portugal topic first Republican estado novo political instability and economic weaknesses were fertile ground for chaos and unrest during the Portuguese First Republic these conditions would lead to the failed monarchy of the north the 28th of May 1926 coup d’etat and the creation of the National dictatorship did adora nacio now this in turn led to the establishment of the right-wing dictatorship of the estado novo under Antonio de Oliveira Salazar in 1933 Portugal was one of only five European countries to remain neutral in world war two from the 1940s to the 1960s Portugal was a founding member of NATO oacd and the European free trade association afta gradually new economic development projects and relocation of mainland Portuguese citizens into the overseas provinces in Africa were initiated with Angola and Mozambique as the largest and richest overseas territories being the main targets of those initiatives these actions were used to affirm Portugal’s status as a transcontinental nation and not as a colonial empire after India attained independence in 1947 pro-indian residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli with the support of the Indian government and the help of pro-independence organizations separated the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in 1954 in 1961 sow jawad baptista de ayuda zanuck sation by the Republic of Dahomey was the start of a process that led to the final dissolution of the centuries-old Portuguese Empire according to the census of 1921 sow Jawad baptista de ayuda had five inhabitants and at the moment of the ultimatum by the Dahomey government it had only two inhabitants representing portuguese sovereignty another forcible retreat from overseas territories occurred in December 1961 when Portugal refused to relinquish the territories of Goa Daman and Diu as a result the Portuguese army and navy were involved in armed conflict in its colony of Portuguese India against the Indian armed forces the operations resulted in the defeat and surrender of the limited Portuguese defensive garrison which was forced to surrender to a much larger military force the outcome was the of the remaining Portuguese territories in the Indian subcontinent the Portuguese regime refused to recognize Indian sovereignty over the annexed territories which continued to be represented in Portugal’s National Assembly until the military coup of 1974 also in the early 1960s independence movements in the Portuguese overseas provinces of Angola Mozambique and Guinea in Africa resulted in the Portuguese colonial war 1961 to 1974 throughout the colonial war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community however the authoritarian and conservative estado novo regime first installed and governed by antónio de Oliveira Salazar and from 1968 onwards led by Marcelo Caetano tried to preserve a vast centuries-long intercontinental empire with a total area of 2,000,000 168,000 71 square kilometers topic Carnation Revolution and European integration the Portuguese government and army resisted the decolonization of its overseas territories until April 1974 when a bloodless left-wing military coup in Lisbon known as the Carnation Revolution led the way for the independence of the overseas territories in Africa and Asia as well as for the restoration of democracy after two years of a transitional period known as prec processo revolutionary om ker so this period was characterized by social turmoil and power disputes between left and right wing political forces the retreat from the overseas territories and the acceptance of its independence terms by Portuguese head representatives for overseas negotiations which would create independent states in 1975 prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal’s African territories mostly from Portuguese Angola and Mozambique over 1 million Portuguese refugees fled the former Portuguese provinces as white settlers were usually not considered part of the new identities of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia mario sora san antonio de almeida santos were charged with organizing the independence of Portugal’s overseas territories by 1975 all the Portuguese African territories were independent and Portugal held its first democratic elections in 50 years Portugal continued to be governed by a hunted asal Vecchio Nacional untill the Portuguese legislative election of 1976 it was won by the Portuguese Socialist Party PS and Mario Soros its leader became prime minister of the first constitutional government on the 23rd of July mario Soros would be Prime Minister from 1976 to 1978 and again from 1983 to 1985 in this capacity Soros tried to resume the economic growth and development record that had been achieved before the carnation revolution during the last decade of the previous regime he initiated the process of accession to the European Economic Community AEC by starting accession negotiations as early as 1977 Portugal bounced between socialism and adherence to the neoliberal model land reform and nationalizations were enforced the Portuguese Constitution approved in nineteen seventy-six was rewritten in order to accommodate socialist and communist principles until the constitutional revisions of 1982 in 1989 the Constitution was a highly charged ideological document with numerous references to socialism the rights of workers and the desirability of a socialist economy Portugal’s economic situation after its transition to democracy obliged the government to pursue International Monetary Fund IMF monitored stabilization programs in 1977-78 in 1983 to 85 in 1986 Portugal joined the European Economic Community AEC that later became the European Union EU in the following years Portugal’s economy progressed considerably as a result of eec EU structural and cohesion funds and Portuguese companies easier access to foreign markets Portugal’s last overseas territory Macau was peacefully handed over to the People’s Republic of China PRC in 1999 under the 1987 joint declaration that set the terms from a cow’s hand over from Portugal to the PRC in 2002 the independence of East Timor Asia was formally recognized by Portugal after an incomplete decolonization process that was started in 1975 because of the carnation revolution but interrupted by an Indonesian armed invasion and occupation on the 26th of March 1995 Portugal started to implement Schengen area rules eliminating border controls with other Schengen members while simultaneously strengthening border controls with non-member States in 1996 the country was a co-founder of the community of Portuguese language countries cplp headquartered in Lisbon expo 98 took place in Portugal and in 1999 it was one of the founding countries of the euro in the euro zone on the 5th of July 2004 Jose Manuel Barroso then prime minister of Portugal was nominated president of the European Commission the most powerful office in the European Union on the 1st of December 2009 the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force after it had been signed by the European Union member states on the 13th of December 2007 in the jeronimos monastery in Lisbon enhancing the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the Union and improving the coherence of its action the Republic of Ireland was the only EU state to hold a democratic referendum on the Lisbon Treaty it was initially rejected by voters in 2008 economic disruption and an unsustainable growth in borrowing costs in the wake of the late-2000s financial crisis led the country to negotiate in 2011 with the IMF and the European Union through the European Financial Stability Mechanism EFSM and the European financial stability facility EFSF alone to help the country stabilise its finances topic geography the territory of Portugal includes an area in the Iberian Peninsula referred to as the continent by most Portuguese and to archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean the archipelago’s of Madeira in the Azores it lies between latitudes 32 degrees and 43 degrees north and longitudes 32 degrees and six degrees west mainland Portugal is split by its main river the Tagus that flows from Spain and disgorges in tagus estuary in Lisbon before escaping into the Atlantic the northern landscape is mountainous towards the interior with several plateaus indented by river valleys whereas the South including the Algarve and the Alentejo regions is characterized by rolling plains Portugal’s highest peak is the similarly named mount picot on the island of picot in the Azores this ancient volcano which measures 2351 metres seven thousand seven hundred thirteen feet is an iconic symbol of the Azores while the serra da estrela on the mainland the summit being 1991 metres 6,500 32 feet above sea level is an important seasonal attraction for skiers and winter sports enthusiasts the archipelago’s of Madeira and the Azores are scattered within the Atlantic Ocean the Azores straddling the mid-atlantic ridge on a tectonic triple Junction and Madeira along a range formed by in plate hotspot geology geologically these islands were formed by volcanic and seismic events the last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in 1957-58 Capitolinus and minor earthquakes occur sporadically usually of low intensity Portugal’s exclusive economic zone a sea zone over which the Portuguese have special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources has 1 million seven hundred twenty seven thousand four hundred eight square kilometers this is the third largest exclusive economic zone of the European Union and the 11th largest in the world topic climate portugal is defined as a Mediterranean climate csa in the south interior and d’Oro region CSB in the north central portugal and coastal Alentejo mixed oceanic climate along the northern half of the coastline and also semi-arid climate or steppe climate BSK in certain parts of Beja district far south according to the köppen Geiger climate classification and is one of the warmest European countries the annual average temperature in mainland Portugal varies from 8 to 12 degrees Celsius 46 point four to fifty three point six degrees Fahrenheit in the mountainous interior north to 16 to 18 degrees Celsius sixty point eight to sixty four point four degrees Fahrenheit in the south and on the Guadiana River Basin there are however variations from the Highlands to the lowlands Rivas Martinez presents several different bioclimatic zones for Portugal the Algarve separated from the Alentejo region by mountains reaching up to 900 metres 3,000 feet in alto de foia has a climate similar to that of the southern coastal areas of Spain or Southwest Australia annual average rainfall in the mainland varies from just over 3,000 200 millimetres 120 6.0 and in the northern mountains to less than 300 millimetres 11.8 in in the area of the masoom River near Khoa along the Douro River mount pico is recognized as receiving the largest annual rainfall over 6,000 250 millimetres 246 point one in per year in Portugal according to instituto portuguese do mari de atmósfera English Portuguese Institute of the see in the atmosphere in some areas such as the Guadiana Basin annual average temperatures can be as high as 28 degrees Celsius 82 degrees Fahrenheit and summer highest temperatures routinely are over 40 degrees Celsius 104 degrees Fahrenheit the record high of 47 point one degrees Celsius 116 point eight degrees Fahrenheit was recorded in a Morelia although this might not be the hottest spot in summer according to satellite readings snowfalls occur regularly in the winter in the interior north and center of the country in districts such as Garda brig ANCA vicio and vila real particularly on the mountains in winter temperatures may drop below minus ten point O degrees Celsius 14 point O degrees Fahrenheit in particular in serra da estrela serra do jeers serra do morale in serra de mantasy now in these places snow can fall anytime from October to May in the south of the country snowfalls are rare but still occur in the highest elevations while the official absolute minimum by IP ma as minus 16 point O degrees Celsius 3.2 degrees fahrenheit in Pena’s desaad and Miranda do Dora lower temperatures have been recorded such as minus seventeen point five degrees Celsius zero point five degrees Fahrenheit by brigh Anka Polytechnic Institute in the outskirts of the city in 1983 and below minus twenty point O degrees Celsius minus 4.0 degrees Fahrenheit in serra da estrela portugal has around 2,500 to 3,000 two hundred hours of sunshine a year an average of four to six H in winter and ten to twelve H in the summer with higher values in the southeast and lower in the northwest the sea surface temperature on the west coast of mainland Portugal varies from 12 to 15 degrees Celsius 53.6 to 59 point O degrees fahrenheit in winter to 18 to 22 degrees Celsius sixty four point four to seventy one point six degrees Fahrenheit in the summer while on the south coast it ranges from 15 degrees Celsius 59 point O degrees Fahrenheit in winter and rises in the summer to about 23 degrees Celsius seventy three point four degrees Fahrenheit occasionally reaching twenty six degrees Celsius seventy eight point eight degrees Fahrenheit both the archipelago’s of the Azores and Madeira have a subtropical climate although variations between islands exist making weather predictions very difficult going to rough topography the Madeira and disorient archipelagos have a narrower temperature range with annual average temperatures exceeding 20 degrees Celsius 68 degrees Fahrenheit along the coast according to the Portuguese meteorological Institute some islands in a soars do have drier months in the summer consequently the island of the Azores have been identified as having a Mediterranean climate both CSA and CSB types while some islands such as Flores are Corvo are classified as maritime temperate cfb and humid subtropical cfa respectively according to cope and Giger classification Porto Santo Island in Madeira has a semi-arid steppe climate BSH the savage islands which are part of the regional territory of Madeira and the Nature Reserve are unique in being classified as a desert climate bwh with an annual average rainfall of approximately 150 millimetres 5.9 in the sea surface temperature in the archipelago’s varies from 17 to 18 degrees Celsius sixty two point six to sixty four point four degrees Fahrenheit in winter to 24 to 25 degrees Celsius seventy five point two to seventy seven point zero degrees Fahrenheit in the summer occasionally reaching twenty five degrees Celsius seventy seven point O degrees Fahrenheit topic biodiversity despite the fact that humans have occupied the territory of Portugal for thousands of years something still remains of the original vegetation in jeers both mature deciduous and coniferous forests can be found an extremely rare worldwide mature Mediterranean forests remain in some parts of the arrábida mountain and a subtropical Laura Silva forest dating back to the tertiary period covers its largest continuous area in the world in the Madeira main island due to the human population decrease in rural Exodus Pyrenean oak and other local native trees are colonizing many abandoned areas boar iberian Red Deer Road ear and the Iberian wild goat are reported to have expanded greatly during recent decades boars were found recently roaming at night inside large urban areas like Institue ball protected areas of Portugal include one National Park portuguese parque nacional twelve natural parks portuguese parque natural 9 natural reserves portuguese reserve a natural five natural monuments portuguese monumento natural and seven protected landscapes portuguese passaging protégée de which include the parque nacional de Pineda Cheers the parque natural de serra da estrela and the paul DARS illa these natural environments are shaped by diverse flora and include widespread species of pine especially the pinus pinaster and pinus pinea species the English oak quercus Rober the Pyrenean oak quercus Pere Anika the chestnut cast amia set eva the cork oak quercus uber the homo Quercus ilex or the portuguese oak quercus Fagen iya due to their economic value some species of the genus eucalyptus were introduced and are now common despite their environmental impact Laura Silva is a unique type of subtropical rainforest which nowadays in Europe is only restricted to the Iberian Peninsula in the Azores and in particular on the island of Madeira there are large forests of endemic Laura Silva forests the latter protected as a natural heritage preserve there are several species of diverse mammalian fauna including the Fox badger Iberian lynx Iberian wolf wild goat Capra Pere Anika Wildcat felis Silvestri’s hare weasel polecat chameleon Mongoose civet brown bear spotted near Rio Minho close to Pineda Cheers and many others Portugal is an important stopover for migratory birds in places such as Cape st.Vincent or the manchak mountains where thousands of birds cross from Europe to Africa during the autumn or in the spring return migration most of the avian species congregate along the Iberian Peninsula since it is the closest stopover between northern Europe and Africa 600 bird species occur in Portugal either for nesting or during the course of migration and annually there are new registries of nesting species the archipelago’s of the Azores and Madeira are transient stopover for American European and African birds while continental Portugal mostly encounters European and African bird species there are more than 100 freshwater fish species varying from the giant European catfish in the Tagus international natural park to some small and endemic species that live only in small lakes along the western portion of country for example some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss pollution and drought upwelling along the west coast of Portugal makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and diverse species of marine fish the Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in the world marine fish species are more common and include thousands of species such as the sardine sardine of pilchard s tuna and Atlantic mackerel bioluminescent species are also well represented including species in different color spectrum and forms like the glowing plankton that are possible to observe in some beaches there are many endemic insect species most only found in certain parts of Portugal while other species are more widespread like the stag beetle Luke and his service and the cicada the macaron even Islands Azores and Madeira have many endemic species like birds reptiles bats insects snails and slugs that evolved independently from other regions of Portugal in Madeira for example it is possible to observe more than 250 species of land gastropods topic government and administration Portugal has been a semi-presidential representative Democratic Republic since the ratification of the constitution of 1976 with Lisbon the nation’s largest city as its capital the Constitution grants the division or separation of powers among four bodies referred as organs of sovereignty the president of the Republic the government the Assembly of the Republic and the courts the president who is elected to a five-year term has an executive role the current president has Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa the Assembly of the Republic as a single chamber parliament composed of 230 deputies elected for a four-year term the government is headed by the Prime Minister currently Antonio Costa and includes ministers and secretaries of state the courts are organized into several levels among the judicial administrative and fiscal branches the supreme courts are institutions of last resort appeal a 13 member Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws Portugal operates a multi-party system of competitive legislatures local administrative governments at the national regional and local levels the Assembly of the Republic regional assemblies and local municipalities and parishes are dominated by two political parties the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party in addition to the unitary Democratic coalition Portuguese Communist Party and ecologist party the Greens the left bloc in the democratic and social center People’s Party which garnered between five and fifteen percent of the vote regularly topic presidency of the Republic the head of state of Portugal as the president of the republic elected to a five-year term by direct universal suffrage he or she has also supervision and reserve powers presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the government where the president takes into account the results of legislative elections dismissing the prime minister dissolving the Assembly of the Republic to call early elections vetoing legislation which may be overridden by the assembly and declaring a state of war siege the president is also the ex officio commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces the president is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State which is composed of six senior civilian officers any former presidents elected under the 1976 Constitution five members chosen by the assembly and five selected by the president topic government the government is headed by the presidentially appointed prime minister also including one or more deputy Prime Minister’s ministers secretaries of state and under secretaries of state the government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration it has essentially executive powers but has also limited legislative powers the government can legislate about its own organization about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the assembly the Council of Ministers under the presidency of the prime minister or the president of Portugal at the latter’s request and the ministers may also include one or more deputy Prime Minister’s acts as the cabinet each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a program and present it to the assembly for a mandatory period of debate the failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of Deputies confirms the cabinet in office topic Parliament the Assembly of the Republic in Lisbon as the national parliament of Portugal it is the main legislative body although the government also has limited legislative powers the Assembly of the Republic as a unicameral body composed of up to 230 deputies elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation deputies serve four-year terms of office unless the president dissolves the assembly and calls for new elections currently the government PS and the parties supporting it through a confidence and supply agreement be PCP pev control parliament with the most seats the PSD and CDs PP parties form the opposition to the government alongside a single seat held by pan topic law and drug policy the Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system also called the Continental Family legal system the main laws include the Constitution 1976 as amended the Portuguese Civil Code 1966 as amended and the Penal Code of Portugal 1982 as amended other relevant laws are The Commercial Code 1888 as amended and the Civil Procedure Code 1961 as amended the supreme national courts are the supreme court of justice in the constitutional court the public ministry headed by the Attorney General of the Republic constitutes the independent body of public prosecutor’s Portuguese law applied in the former colonies and territories and continues to be the major influence for those countries Portugal was the first country in the world to abolish life imprisonment in 1884 and was one of the first countries to abolish the death penalty maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all common drugs in 2001 the first country in the world to do so Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are still illegal in other developed nations including cannabis cocaine heroin and LSD while possession is legal trafficking and possession of more than 10 days worth of personal use are still punishable by jail time and fines people caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility and may refuse treatment without consequences despite criticism from other European nations who stated Portugal’s drug consumption would tremendously increase overall drug use has declined along with the number of HIV infection cases which had dropped 50% by 2009 drug use among 16 to 18 year olds also declined however the use of marijuana rose only slightly among that age group topic lgbtq+ rights in Portugal lgbtq+ rights have increased substantially in the past years on the 31st of May 2010 Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriage on the national level the law came into force on the 5th of June 2010 same-sex adoption is allowed since the 1st of March 2016 as his female same-sex couple access to medically assisted reproduction since the 13th of May 2016 this bill was adopted by the Parliament and signed by President Marcelo Rebelo de Souza as of January 2017 the new law of gender identity simplified the process of gender and name change for transgender people making it easier for minors to change their gender identity topic law enforcement Portugal’s main police organizations are the garden Nacional republicana G and our national Republican Guard agender Mary the policia disagree angka public of PSP public security police a civilian police force who work in urban areas and the policia judiciary appeai a judicial police a highly specialized Criminal Investigation police that is overseen by the public ministry topic administrative divisions administratively Portugal is divided into three hundred eight municipalities Portuguese mooney CBO’s are cancellous which after a reform in 2013 are subdivided into three thousand ninety two civil parishes Portuguese freguesia operationally the municipality and civil parish along with the national government are the only legally identifiable local administrative units identified by the government of Portugal for example cities towns or villages have no standing in law although may be used as catchment for the defining services for statistical purposes the Portuguese government also identifies nuts inter-municipal communities and informally the district system used until European integration and being phased out by the national government continental Portugal is agglomerate ydynt ooh 18 districts while the archipelago’s of the Azores and Madeira are governed as autonomous regions the largest units established since 1976 are either mainland Portugal Portuguese Portugal continental and the autonomous regions of Portugal Azores and Madeira the 18 districts of mainland Portugal are Aveiro Beja Braga brig ANCA Castelo Branco Coimbra Evera Faro Garda Leiria Lisbon portalegre Porto santarém setúbal viana do castelo Villarreal and Vasile each district takes the name of the district capital within the European Union nuts nomenclature of territorial units for Statistics system Portugal is divided into seven regions the Azores Alentejo Algarve Centro lisboa Madeira and Norte and with the exception of the Azores and Madeira these nuts areas are subdivided into 28 sub regions topic foreign relations a member state of the United Nations since 1955 Portugal is also a founding member of NATO 1949 Oh II CD 1961 in F – 1960 it left the last in 1986 to join the European Economic Community which became the European Union in 1993 in 1996 it co-founded the community of Portuguese language countries cplp which seeks to foster closer economic and cultural ties between the world SLUSA phone nations antonio guterres who has served as prime minister of portugal from 1995 to 2002 and UN High Commissioner for Refugees from 2005 to 2015 assumed the post of UN secretary-general on the 1st of January 2017 making him the first secretary-general from Western Europe since Kurt Waldheim of Austria 1972 to 1981 the first former head of government to become Secretary General and the first secretary-general born after the establishment of the United Nations on the 26th of June 1945 in addition Portugal is a full member of the Latin Union 1983 in the organization of ibero-american States 1949 it has a Friendship Alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony Brazil Portugal and England subsequently the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland share the world’s oldest active military Accord through their anglo-portuguese Alliance Treaty of Windsor which was signed in 1373 there are two international territorial disputes both with Spain olivenza under Portuguese sovereignty since 1297 the municipality of olivenza was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Badajoz in 1801 after the war of the oranges Portugal claimed it back in 1815 under the Treaty of Vienna however since the 19th century it has been continuously ruled by Spain which considers the territory there’s not only de facto but also to jury the ilis selvedge UNS savage islands the archipelago is under Portuguese domination but as geographically closer to the Canary Islands 165 kilometres than to Madeira 280 kilometers found in 1364 by Italian navigators the islands belong to private owners until 1971 when the Portuguese government bought them and established a natural reserve area covering the whole archipelago the islands have been claimed by Spain since 1911 and the dispute has caused some periods of political tension between the two countries the main problem is not so much their intrinsic value but the fact that they expand considerably to the south the exclusive economic zone of Portugal topic military the Armed Forces have three branches Navy Army and Air Force they served primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and provide humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad as of 2008 the three branches numbered 39,000 200 active personnel including 7,500 women Portuguese military expenditure in 2009 was billion representing 2.1 percent of GDP military conscription was abolished in 2004 the minimum age for voluntary recruitment as 18 years the army 21,000 personnel comprises three brigades and other small units an infantry brigade mainly equipped with pandered to APC a mechanized brigade mainly equipped with leopard 2a6 tanks and m113 APC and a Rapid Reaction brigade consisting of paratroopers commandos and Rangers the Navy 10700 personnel of which 1580 are Marines the world’s oldest surviving naval force has five frigates seven Corvettes two submarines and 28 patrol and auxiliary vessels the Air Force 7,500 personnel has the Lockheed f-16 Fighting Falcon and the DeSoto or near alpha jet is the main combat aircraft in addition to the three branches of the Armed Forces there is the national Republican Guard a security force subject to military law and organization gender marry comprising 25,000 personnel this force is under the authority of both the defense and the interior ministry it has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor the United States maintains a military presence with 770 troops in the LaHaye’s airbase at Terceira Island in the Azores the allied joint force command Lisbon JFC Lisbon one of the three main subdivisions of NATO’s allied command operations it is based in OE Arras near Lisbon in the 20th century Portugal engaged in two major conflicts world war one in the Portuguese colonial war 1961 to 1974 after the end of the Portuguese Empire in 1975 the Portuguese armed forces have participated in peacekeeping missions in East Timor Bosnia Kosovo Afghanistan Somalia Iraq and Syria Lebanon Mali and Central African Republic Portugal also conducted several independent unilateral military operations abroad as were the cases of the interventions of the Portuguese armed forces in Angola in 1992 and in Guinea Bissau in 1998 with the main objectives of protecting and withdrawing of Portuguese and foreign citizens threatened by local civil conflicts pick government finance the Portuguese government is heavily indebted and received a 78 billion euro bailout from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund in May 2011 the ratio of Portugal’s debt to its overall economy was 107 percent when it received the bailout as part of the deal the country agreed to cut its budget deficit from nine point eight percent of GDP in 2010 to 5.9 percent in 2011 4.5 percent in 2012 and 3 percent in 2013 after the bailout was announced the Portuguese government headed by Pedro Passos Coelho managed to implement measures with the intention of improving the state’s financial situation including tax hikes a freeze of civil service related lower wages and cuts of higher wages by 14.3% on top of the government spending cuts the Portuguese government also agreed to eliminate its golden share in Portugal telecom which gave it veto power over vital decisions in 2012 all public servants had already seen an average wage cut of 20 percent relative to their 2010 baseline with cuts reaching 25 percent for those earning more than 1,500 euro per month the IMF the European Commission EC and the European Central Bank ECB said in September 2012 that Portugal’s debt would peak at 124 percent of gross domestic product in 2014 the IMF previously said in July 2012 that Portugal’s debt would peak at about 118 point five percent of GDP in 2013 in September 2013 the Portuguese government reviewed again the public debt of Portugal for 2013 to 127 point eight percent after a peak of 130 point nine percent in that month report released in January 2011 by the diario de noticias and published in Portugal by gradova had demonstrated that in the period between the carnation revolution in 1974 in 2010 the democratic portuguese republic governments encouraged over expenditure and investment bubbles through unclear public-private partnerships and funding of numerous ineffective and unnecessary external consultancy and advisory of committees and firms this allowed considerable slippage in state managed Public Works an inflated top man judgment and head officer bonuses and wages persistent and lasting recruitment policies boosted the number of redundant public servants risky credit public debt creation and European structural and cohesion funds were mismanaged across almost four decades after the financial crisis of 2007 Oh 8 it was known in 2008-2009 that two portuguese banks banco portuguese de negocios VPN and banco privado portuguese BPP had been accumulating losses for years due to bad investments embezzlement and accounting fraud the case of bpn was particularly serious because of its size market share and the political implications Portugal’s then-president Cavaco Silva and some of his political allies maintained personal and business relationships with the bank and its CEO who was eventually charged and arrested for fraud and other crimes in the grounds of avoiding a potentially serious financial crisis in the Portuguese economy the Portuguese government decided to give them a bailout eventually at a future loss to taxpayers into the Portuguese people in general topic economy Portugal is a developed in a high-income country with a GDP per capita of 77% of the EU 28 average in 2017 increasing from 75% in 2012 an HDI of 0.8 43 the 41st highest in 2016 by the end of 2016 Portugal’s GDP PPP was 30,000 $612 per capita according to OECD s report the national currency of Portugal as the euro euro which replaced the Portuguese Escudo and the country was one of the original member states of the eurozone Portugal central bank is the Banco de Portugal an integral part of the European system of central banks most industries businesses and financial institutions are concentrated in the Lisbon and Porto metropolitan areas thus a two ball aveiro Braga Coimbra and Lyria districts are the biggest economic centres outside these two main areas according to World Travel Awards Portugal was Europe’s leading golf destination in 2012 in 2013 since the carnation revolution of 1974 which culminated in the end of one of Portugal’s most notable phases of economic expansion that started in the 1960s a significant change has occurred in the nation’s annual economic growth after the turmoil of the 1974 revolution and the prek period Portugal tried to adapt to a changing modern global economy a process that continues in 2013 since the 1990s Portugal’s public consumption based economic development model has been slowly changing to a system that is focused on exports private investment and the development of the high-tech sector consequently business services have overtaken more traditional industries such as textiles clothing footwear and cork Portugal as the world’s leading cork producer wood products and beverages in the second decade of the 21st century the Portuguese economy suffered its most severe recession since the 1970s resulting in the country having to be bailed out by the European Commission European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund IMF the bailout agreed to in 2011 required Portugal to enter into a range of austerity measures in change for funding support of 78 billion euros in May 2014 the country exited the bailout but reaffirmed its commitment to maintaining its reformist momentum at the time of exiting the bailout the economy had contracted by 0.7% in the first quarter of 2014 however unemployment while still high had fallen to 15.3% the average salary in Portugal as 910 euros per month excluding self-employed individuals and the minimum wage which is regulated by law is 580 euros per month paid 14 times per annum the global competitiveness report for 2014-2015 published by the World Economic Forum placed Portugal on the 36th position on the economic index The Economist Intelligence units quality of life index placed Portugal as the country with the 19th best quality of life in the world for 2005 ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries like France Germany the United Kingdom and South Korea but nine places behind its Seoul neighbor Spain this is despite the fact that Portugal remains as one of the countries with the lowest per capita GDP in Western Europe major state-owned companies include aguas de Portugal water Taisha gerald de depósito spanking convoys de Portugal railways companhia docile Assyria’s agriculture and RTP media some former state-owned entities are managed by state-run holding company par pública which is a shareholder of several public and private companies among former state-owned companies recently privatized are ctt postal service tap portugal airline and ana airports companies listed on Euronext lisbon stock exchange like EDP gal geronimo mark teens Mota angle nova base samatha Portus elsa pourcel portugal telecom and san i are amongst the largest corporations of portugal by number of employees net income or international market share the euro next Lisbon is the major stock exchange of Portugal and is part of the NYC Euronext the first global stock exchange the site 20 is Portugal’s most selective and widely known stock index the International Monetary Fund issued an update report on the economy of Portugal in late June 2017 with a strong near-term outlook and an increase in investments in exports over previous years because of a surplus in 2016 the country was no longer bound by the excessive deficit procedure which had been implemented during an earlier financial crisis the banking system was more stable although there were still non-performing loans in corporate debt the IMF recommended working on solving these problems for Portugal to be able to attract more private investment sustained strong growth together with continued public debt reduction would reduce vulnerabilities arising from high indebtedness particularly when monetary accommodation is reduced topic primary sector agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units however the sector also includes larger scale intensive farming export oriented agribusinesses backed by companies like grupo RA ours vitae cress Savina Lac toggle vale de rosa Campania da sleazy Ria’s and Laura the country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock products including tomatoes citrus green vegetables rice corn wheat barley olives oil seeds nuts cherries bilberry table grapes edible mushrooms dairy products poultry and beef forestry has also played an important economic role among the rural communities and Industry namely paper industry that includes Portus elsa pourcel group engineered wood that includes sanai industria and furniture that includes several manufacturing plants in and around paços de ferreira the core of Portugal’s major industrial operations of Ikea in 2001 the gross agricultural product accounted for 4 percent of the national GDP traditionally a seapower portugal has had a strong tradition in the portuguese fishing sector and as one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita the main landing sites in portugal including Azores and Madeira according to total landings in weight by year are the harbors of mitosis Peniche Alejo simbra figueira da foz signs Portimao and Madeira Portuguese processed fish products are exported through several companies under a number of different brands and registered trademarks such as Ramirez the world’s oldest active canned fish producer Portugal is a significant European minerals producer and is ranked among Europe’s leading copper producers the nation is also a notable producer of tin tungsten and uranium however the country lacks the potential to conduct hydrocarbon exploration and aluminium limitation that has hindered the development of Portugal’s mining and metallurgy sectors although the country has vast iron and coal reserves mainly in the north after the 1974 revolution and the consequent economic globalization low competitiveness forced a decrease in the extraction activity for these minerals the panis Kara and novice Corvo mines are among the most recognized Portuguese mines that are still in operation Portugal is rich in its lithium subsoil which is especially concentrated in the districts of Garda VCU Villarreal and viana do castelo while most of the country’s lithium comes from the gonçalo a polite pegmatite field the largest lithium mine in Europe is operated by grupo Mota fel mecca in the Garter region which is estimated to have reserves for 30 years of production it has 5 more deposits in its possession savanna resources on may 20 18 announced a 52% increase in the estimated lithium resources at the MENA do Barroso lithium project in northern Portugal saying the country could become the first European supplier of Spode amine a lithium bearing mineral the company said the estimated mineral resources at the mine now stood at 14 million tonnes lithium prices have risen an expectation of growing demand for the mineral which is used in batteries for electric vehicles and for storing electricity from the power grid Europe consumes more than 20% of the global supply of battery grade lithium but currently has to import all its supplies of the mineral W resources stated in 2018 that it had started a new drilling campaign at its Salle Martin HO gold project in Portugal the so called reverse circulation drilling program included 15 holes with around 2000 metres of total drilling the objective is to extend resources by integrating the data from 2016 drilling results with the expansion expected with the ongoing campaign wine has been one of the most noted Portuguese exports the country is the seventh largest exporter of the product worldwide by value topic secondary sector industry is diversified ranging from automotive Volkswagen Auto Europa and pooja Citroen aerospace Embree air and OGM a electronics and textiles to food chemicals cement and wood pulp Volkswagen Group’s Auto Europa motor vehicle assembly plant in palmela is among the largest foreign direct investment projects in Portugal modern non traditional technology-based industries such as aerospace biotechnology and information technology have been developed in several locations across the country all Vericut covilhã Evera and ponte disor are the main centres of the portuguese aerospace industry which is led by Brazil based company Embree air and the Portuguese company OGM a following the turn of the 21st century many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon poor to Braga Coimbra and Avera topic tertiary sector the banking and insurance sectors performed well until the late-2000s financial crisis and this partly reflected a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal while sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks it has been estimated that overall both the life and non-life sectors will be able to withstand a number of severe shocks even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely Travel and Tourism continue to be extremely important for Portugal it has been necessary for the country to focus upon its niche attractions such as health nature and rural tourism to stay ahead of its competitors Portugal is among the top 20 most visited countries in the world receiving an average of 20 million foreign tourists each year in 2014 Portugal was elected the best European country by the USA Today in 2017 Portugal was elected both Europe’s leading destination and world’s leading destination tourist hotspots in Portugal our Lisbon Casca Fatima Algarve Madeira Porto and the city of Coimbra Lisbon attracts the 16th most tourists among European cities with 7 million tourists occupying the city’s hotels in 2006 also between 5 to 6 million religious pilgrims visit fatima each year where apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary two three Shepherd children reportedly took place in 1917 the sanctuary of Our Lady of Fatima is one of the largest Roman Catholic shrines in the world the Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist destinations such as the Douro Valley the island of Porto Santo and Alentejo the legend of the rooster of Barcelos tells the story of a dead roosters miraculous intervention in proving the innocence of a man who had been falsely accused and sentenced to death the story is associated with the 17th century Calvary that is part of the collection of the Archaeological Museum located in Paco dos Condes a Gothic style Palace invar celos a city in Northwest Portugal the rooster of barcelos is bought by many tourists as a souvenir on the 30th of November 2016 the United Nations added the Portuguese bustle haste tradition of making black pottery to the UNESCO heritage protection list on the 7th of December 2017 the unite Nations added the Bona Costa Estrella most toys of estaremos tradition as a UNESCO intangible cultural heritage of humankind topic quaternary sector scientific and technological research activities in Portugal are mainly conducted within a network of R and D units belonging to public universities and state managed autonomous research institutions like the ind TI instituto nacional de engenharia tecnología a anova KO in the inr be instituto nacional dos recursos biologic us the funding and management of this research system is mainly conducted under the authority of the ministry of science technology and higher education MC tes itself in the MC tes is fin de que o para de ciencia II technology ax FCT the largest R&D units of the public universities by volume of research grants and peer-reviewed publications include Biosciences research institutions like the instituto de medicina molecular the Center for Neuroscience and cell biology the IP ATI mu P the instituto de biología molecular cellular and the Abel Salazar biomedical sciences institute among the largest non state-run research institutions in portugal are the instituto Gulbenkian de ciencia and the champ Alamo Foundation a neuroscience and oncology Research Center which in addition Awards every year one of the highest monetary prizes of any science prize in the world a number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies are also responsible for research and development projects one of the oldest learned societies of Portugal as the sciences Academy of Lisbon founded in 1779 Iberian bilateral state supported research efforts include the International Iberian nanotechnology Laboratory in the AI bursa beasts distributed computing platform which are joint research programs of both Portugal and Spain Portugal is a member of several pan-european scientific organizations these include the European Space Agency ESA the European laboratory for particle physics CERN ITER and the european southern observatory ESO Portugal has the largest aquarium in Europe the lisbon oceanarium and the portuguese have set other notable organizations focused on science related exhibits indication like the state agency cnc Aviva a program of the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology to the promotion of a scientific and technological culture among the Portuguese population the Science Museum of the University of Coimbra the National Museum of Natural History at the University of Lisbon and the visionary ‘m with the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific technological and knowledge-based businesses Portugal started to develop several science parks across the country these include the Tagus Park in a Yaris the Coimbra I park in Coimbra the bio can’t in Canton heat the Madeira techno Polo in Funchal signs techno polo in science tech my my ax and park urbis in covilhã companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support IGAs Mondas a Portuguese physician who developed the cerebral angiography and leucotomy received in 1949 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine he is the first Portuguese recipient of a Nobel Prize and the only in the sciences the European innovation scoreboard 2011 placed Portugal based innovation in the 15th position with an impressive increase in innovation expenditure and output topic transport by the early 1970s Portugal’s fast economic growth with increasing consumption and purchase of new automobiles set the priority for improvements in transportation again in the 1990s after joining the European Economic Community the country built many new motorways today the country has a sixty-eight thousand seven hundred thirty two kilometers forty two thousand seven hundred eight miles Road network of which almost three thousand kilometres 1864 miles are part of system of 44 motorways opened in 1944 the first motorway which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium was an innovative project that made Portugal among one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway this roadway eventually became the Lisbon cascade highway or a5 although a few other tracks were created around 1960 and 1970 it was only after the beginning of the 1980s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented in 1972 Brisa the highway concessionaire was founded to handle the management of many of the region’s motorways on many highways a toll needs to be paid CVO verde Vasco da Gama bridge is the longest bridge in Europe continental Portugal’s 89,000 15 square kilometres 34,000 369 square miles territory is serviced by four international airports located near the principal cities of Lisbon Porto Faro and Beja Lisbon’s geographical position makes it a stopover for many foreign airlines at several airports within the country the primary flag carrier aztap Air Portugal although many other domestic airlines provide services within and without the country the government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon in al Kochi to replace Lisbon Portela Airport though this plan has been suspended due to austerity measures currently the most important airports are in Lisbon for to Faro central Madeira and Ponta Delgada Azores managed by the National Airport Authority Group Anna aeropuerto de Portugal one other important Airport is the aeropuerto Internacional de la Hayes on the island of Terceira in the Azores this airport serves as one of two international airports in countries outside the European Union for all nine islands of the Azores it also serves as a military airbase for the United States Air Force the base remains in use to the present day a national railway system that extends throughout the country and into Spain is supported and administered by convoys de Portugal rail transport of passengers and goods as derived using the 2791 kilometers 1734 miles of railway lines currently in service of which 1430 kilometers 889 miles are electrified and about 900 kilometers 559 miles allow train speeds greater than 120 kilometers per hour 75 miles per hour the railway network is managed by the refer while the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of cambios de Portugal CP both public companies in 2006 the CP carried 133 million passengers and nine million 750,000 T nine million six hundred thousand long tons ten million seven hundred thousand short tons of goods the major sea ports are located in signs Lisbon Lake Zoe’s satu Ball Aveiro federa da foz and Faro the two largest metropolitan areas have subway systems Lisbon metro and Metro Sewell do Tejo in the Lisbon metropolitan area and Porto Metro in the port do metropolitan area each with more than 35 kilometres 22 miles of lines in portugal lisbon tram services have been supplied by the Campania de Kharis de Faro de Lisboa Terrace for over a century in Porto a tram network of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remains began construction on the 12th of September 1895 a first for the Iberian Peninsula all major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network as well as taxi services topic energy Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power the two most cost-effective renewable energy sources since the turn of the 21st century there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuels in 2006 the world’s largest solar power plant at that date the mora photovoltaic power station began operating near mora in the south while the world’s first commercial wave power farm the Iguchi dora wave farm opened in the nord a region 2008 by the end of 2006 sixty-six percent of the country’s electrical production was from coal and fuel power plants while 29% were derived from hydroelectric dams and 6% by wind energy in 2008 renewable energy resources were producing 43 percent of the nation’s consumption of electricity even as hydroelectric production decreased with severe droughts as of June 2010 electricity exports had outnumbered imports in the period between January and May 2010 70% of the national production of energy came from renewable sources Portugal’s national energy transmission company reads energy because may see a wren uses sophisticated modeling to predict weather especially wind patterns and computer programs to calculate energy from the various renewable energy plants before the solar wind revolution Portugal had generated electricity from hydro power plants on its rivers for decades new programs combine wind and water wind driven turbines pump water uphill at night the most blustery period then the water flows downhill by day generating electricity when consumer demand is highest Portugal’s distribution system is also now a two-way street instead of just delivering electricity it draws electricity from even the smallest generators like rooftop solar panels the government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop generated solar electricity topic demographics the statistics portugal portuguese INE instituto nacional de estadística estimates that according to the 2011 census the population was ten million five hundred sixty two thousand one hundred seventy eight of which fifty-two percent was female forty eight percent was male in 2017 and according to more up-to-date figures the population decreased to ten million two hundred ninety one thousand twenty seven this population has been relatively homogeneous for most of its history a single religion Roman Catholicism and a single language have contributed to this ethnic and national unity namely after the expulsion of the moors and jews a number of those minorities nevertheless stayed in portugal under the condition that they convert to Catholicism after which they became known as moriscos and Muranos or more commonly cristão snow those new Christians a small number of the former Jews may have continued to observe rabbinic judaism in secret over many generations in the case of the secret Jews of Belmonte a small town in the interior where now people observed the Jewish faith openly after 1772 the distinction between old and new Christians was abolished by decree some famous Portuguese new Christians were the mathematician pedro núñez and the physician and naturalist garcia de Horta another interesting demographic feature relates to the Scandinavian expansion towards the West and strong activity in northern Portugal where it is believed some coastline communities kept Scandinavian ancestry in Aveiro Porto and Braga regions the most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one current interpretation of Y chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in Paleolithic people’s that began arriving to the European continent around 45,000 years ago all subsequent migrations did leave an impact genetically and culturally but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic genetic studies show Portuguese populations not to be significantly different from other European populations Portuguese people have a preponderance II of Iberian genetics iron age period which belonged to r1b haplogroup family alongside with brittonic alpine and like genetical markers also expectable but not so common our south european Sardinian Italian and Balkans broadly northwestern West Germanic and in a less extent British Irish Britain dick Gaelic and French Alpine with a low confidence range there are Scandinavian and East European genetical markers other sources would point out a small presence of Berber and Jewish that would be also part of a low confidence region native Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group whose ancestry is very similar to Spaniards and have strong ties with fellow Atlantic art countries like Ireland British Isles France and Belgium due to maritime trade dated as far back as the Bronze Age these maritime contacts and the prevalence of r1b haplogroup as the main genetical marker of these countries suggest a common ancestry and cultural proximity other maritime contacts with the Mediterranean specially with Greeks and Phoenicians at particular cultural phenotypes in southern Portugal and southern Spain Tartessos culture making both Portugal and Spain a bridge between northwestern Europe and the Mediterranean but maintaining the Atlantic character the total fertility rate TFR as of 2015 was estimated at one point five – children born/woman which is below the replacement rate of 2.1 in 2016 fifty two point eight percent of births were to unmarried women like most Western countries Portugal has to deal with low fertility levels the country has experienced a sub-replacement fertility rate since the 1980s the structure of Portuguese society is characterized by an increasing inequality which at present 2015 places the country in the lowest third of the social justice index for the European Union topic urbanization topic metropolitan areas in functional urban area Fua there are two greater metropolitan areas gams Lisbon and Porto topic immigration in 2007 Portugal had ten million six hundred seventeen thousand 575 inhabitants of whom about three hundred thirty two thousand 137 were illegal immigrants as of 2015 Portugal had ten million three hundred forty-one thousand three hundred thirty inhabitants of whom about three hundred eighty three thousand seven hundred fifty nine were illegal migrants making up 3.7 percent of the population Portugal’s colonial history has long since been a cornerstone of its national identity as has its geographic position at the southwestern corner of Europe looking out into the Atlantic Ocean it was one of the last Western colonial European powers to give up its overseas territories among them Angola and Mozambique in 1975 turning over the administration of Macau to the People’s Republic of China at the end of 1999 consequently it has both influenced and been influenced by cultures from former colonies or dependencies resulting in emigration from these former territories for both economic and personal reasons Portugal long a country of emigration the vast majority of Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry has now become a country of net emigration and not just from the last Indian Portuguese until 1961 African Portuguese until 1975 and far east asian Portuguese until 1999 overseas territories an estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country’s African possessions gained independence in 1975 since the 1990s along with a boom in construction several new waves of Ukrainian Brazilian Lusa phone Africans and other Africans have settled in the country Romanian Moldovans Kosovar and Chinese have also migrated to the country Portugal’s Romani population is estimated to be at about 40,000 numbers of Venezuelan Pakistani and Indian migrants are also significant in addition a number of EU citizens mostly from the United Kingdom other northern European or Nordic countries have become permanent residents in the country with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners who live in the Algarve in Madeira topic religion according to the 2011 census eighty 1.0 percent of the Portuguese population is Roman Catholic the country has small Protestant latter-day Saint Muslim Hindu Sikh Eastern Orthodox Church Jehovah’s Witnesses the high Buddhist Jewish and Spiritist communities influences from African traditional religion and Chinese traditional religion are also felt among many people particularly in fields related with traditional Chinese medicine and African witch doctors some 6.8 percent of the population declared themselves to be non-religious and 8.3 percent did not give any answer about their religion many Portuguese holidays festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation their relative power fluctuated in the 13th and 14th centuries the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest it’s close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system including its first University the growth of the Portuguese overseas Empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization with important roles in the education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited continents the growth of liberal and nascent Republican movements during the era’s leading to the formation of the first Portuguese Republic 1910 to 26 changed the role in importance of organized religion Portugal as a secular state church and state were formally separated during the Portuguese First Republic and later reiterated in the 1976 Portuguese Constitution other than the Constitution the two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal are the 1940 King Chordata later amended in 1971 between Portugal and the Holy See and the 2001 Religious Freedom Act topic languages Portuguese is the official language of Portugal Portuguese as a Romance language that originated in what is now Galician and northern Portugal originating from galician-portuguese which was the common language of the Galician and Portuguese people until the formation of Portugal there are still many similarities between the Galician culture in the Portuguese culture Galicia is a consultative observer of the community of Portuguese language countries the Portuguese language is derived from the Latin spoken by the romanized pre-roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around 2,000 years ago particularly the Celts tartessian Lusitania pnes and iberians in the 15th and 16th centuries the language spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire between 1415 and 1999 Portuguese is spoken as a native language in five different continents with Brazil accounting for the largest number of native Portuguese speakers of any country 209 five million speakers in 2016 in 2013 the Portuguese language as the official language spoken in Brazil Angola Mozambique Cape Verde South ohmae and príncipe Guinea Bissau Equatorial Guinea and East Timor these countries plus Macau special administrative region People’s Republic of China where Portuguese is co-official with Cantonese make up the Luso sphere a term derived from the ancient roman province of Lusitania which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the Douro River Moran DS is also recognized as a co official regional language in some municipalities of northeastern Portugal an estimate of between 6,000 and 7,000 mirandy speakers has been documented for Portugal according to international English proficiency index Portugal has a high proficiency level in English higher than in countries like Italy France or Spain topic education the educational system is divided into preschool for those under age six basic education nine years in three stages compulsory secondary education three years compulsory since 2010 and higher education subdivided in university and Polytechnic education universities are usually organized into faculties institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions the total adult literacy rate as 99% Portuguese primary school enrollments are 100% according to the program for International Student Assessment Pisa 2015 the average Portuguese 15 year old student when rated in terms of reading literacy mathematics and science knowledge is placed significantly above the OECD’s average at a similar level as those students from Norway Poland Denmark and Belgium with 501 points 493 is the average the Pisa results of the Portuguese students have been continuously improving overcoming a number of other highly developed Western countries like the USA Austria France and Sweden about 40 percent of college aged citizens 20 years old attend one of Portugal’s higher education institutions compared with 50% in the United States and 35% in the OECD countries in addition to being a destination for international students Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students all higher education students both domestic and international totaled 380,000 937 in 2005 Portuguese universities have existed since 1290 the oldest Portuguese University was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra historically within the scope of the Portuguese Empire the Portuguese founded the oldest engineering school of the Americas the real academia de artell haria Ford officially DiSanto of Rio de Janeiro in 1792 as well as the oldest medical college in Asia the escola medico surgical Goa in 1842 presently the largest university in Portugal is the University of Lisbon the Bologna process has been adopted CIN 2006 by Portuguese universities and Polytechnical Institute’s higher education in state-run educational establishments has provided on a competitive basis a system of numerous closest has enforced through a national database on student admissions however every higher education institution offers also a number of additional vacant places through other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen mature applicants over 23 years old international students foreign students from the Luso sphere degree owners from other institutions students from other institutions academic transfer former students readmission and course change which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each institution or course department most student costs are supported with public money however with the increasing tuition fees a student has to pay to attend a Portuguese state-run higher education institution and the attraction of new types of students many as part-time students or in evening classes like employees businessmen parents and pensioners many departments make a substantial profit from every additional student enrolled in courses with benefits for the college or universities gross tuition revenue and without loss of educational quality teacher per student computer per student classroom size per student etc Portugal has entered into cooperation agreements with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other US institutions to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research topic health according to the latest Human Development Report the average life expectancy in 2015 was eighty one point three years Portugal ranks 12th in the best public health systems in the world ahead of high developed countries like the United Kingdom Germany or Sweden the Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems the National Health Service serviço Nacional desaad SNS special social health insurance schemes for certain professions health subsystems and voluntary private health insurance the SNS provides universal coverage in addition about 25 percent of the population is covered by the health subsystems 10 percent by private insurance schemes and another 7 percent by mutual funds the Ministry of Health is responsible for developing health policy as well as managing the SMS 5 Regional Health administration’s are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives developing guidelines and protocols and supervising healthcare delivery decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial and management responsibilities to the regional level in practice however the autonomy of regional health administration’s over budget setting and spending has been limited to primary care the SMS is predominantly funded through general taxation employer including the state and employee contributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems in addition direct payments by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding similar to the other EUR a country’s most Portuguese die from non-communicable diseases mortality from cardiovascular diseases CVD is higher than in the eurozone but it’s two main components ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease display inverse trends compared with the EUR a with cerebrovascular disease being the single biggest killer in Portugal 17% Portuguese people die 12% less often from cancer than in the EUR a but mortality is not declining as rapidly as in the EUR a cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger than 44 years although lung cancer slowly increasing among women and breast cancer decreasing rapidly scare sir cancer of the cervix and the prostate are more frequent Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Ouray with a sharp increase since the 1980s Portugal’s infant mortality rate has dropped sharply since the late 1970s when 24 of 1,000 newborns died in the first year of life it is now around 2 deaths for a 1,000 newborns this improvement was mainly due to the decrease in neonatal mortality from 15.5 to 2.4 per 1000 live births people are usually well-informed about their health status the positive and negative effects of their behavior on their health and their use of healthcare services yet their perceptions of their health can differ from what administrative and examination based data show about levels of illness within populations thus survey results based on self reporting at the household level complement other data on health status and the use of services only one-third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal kazmo at all 2004 this is the lowest of the urate countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity topic culture Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent or were introduced when it played an active role during the Age of Discovery in the 1990s and 2000s decade Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian foundation established in 1956 in Lisbon these include the belem cultural center in Lisbon sera Foundation and the casa da musica both in Porto as well as new public cultural facilities like municipal libraries and concert halls that were built or renovated in many municipalities across the country Portugal is home to 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites ranking at 8th in Europe and 17th in the world topic architecture traditional architecture is distinctive and include the manueline also known as Portuguese late gothic a sumptuous composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century a 20th century interpretation of traditional architecture soft Portuguese style appears extensively in major cities especially Lisbon modern Portugal has given the world renowned architects like Eduardo Souto de Moura Alvaro Siza Vieira both Pritzker Prize winners and Gonzalo burn in Portugal Tomas de vera has also noteworthy particularly for Stadium design topic cinema Portuguese cinema has a long tradition reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century Antonio Lopez Ribeiro Antonio Reese Pedro Costa Manuel de Oliveira jawoll says our Montero Edgar Parra Antonio Pedro Vasconcelos Fernando Lopez jawoll Botello and Leonel Vieira are among those that gained notability noted Portuguese film actors include Joaquim de Almeida Nuno Lopez daniela ruah maria de Medeiros Diogo Infante Soria chavs Robinho Lucia Montes and Diogo Morgado topic literature Portuguese literature one of the earliest Western literature’s developed through text as well as song until 1350 the Portuguese Galician troubadour spread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula gil vicente c1 465 C 1536 was one of the founders of Portuguese dramatic traditions adventurer and poet luís de camões C 1524 to 1580 wrote the epic poem oz Lucy Otis the Lucy ads with Virgil’s Aeneid as his main influence modern Portuguese poetry is rooted in neo classic and contemporary styles as exemplified by Fernando Pessoa 1888 to 1935 modern Portuguese literature is represented by authors such as Almeida Garrett Camilo Castelo Branco Iike de queirós fernando pessoa sophia de mello brainer and riesen antonio Lobo Antunes in Miguel toga particularly popular and distinguished as josé Saramago recipient of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Literature topic cuisine Portuguese cuisine is diverse the Portuguese consume a lot of dry Cod bacalhau in portuguese for which there are hundreds of recipes there are more than enough to calhau dishes over one for each day of the year two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardines and called errata a potato based stew that can be made from several types of fish typical Portuguese meat recipes made out of beef pork lamb or chicken include cozy dough a Portuguese a feijoada Franco did churrasco Leitao roast suckling pig and carne de porco Allan tejana a very popular northern dish as the arroz de cera bolo rice stewed in pig’s blood or the arroz de cabidela rice and chickens meat student chickens blood typical fast-food dishes include the francesinha Frenchie from Porto tripas ammo’ de do Porto which is also a traditional plate from Porto and Befana is grilled pork or prego grilled beef sandwiches which are well known around the country the Portuguese art of pastry has its origins in the many medieval Catholic monastery spread widely across the country these monasteries using very few ingredients mostly almonds flour eggs and some liquor managed to create a spectacular wide range of different pastries of which pasta is de belem or pasta as de nada originally from Lisbon and ovios moles from a vero are examples Portuguese cuisine is very diverse with different regions having their own traditional dishes the Portuguese have a culture of good food and throughout the country there are myriads of good restaurants and typical small tasks – Portuguese wines have enjoyed international recognition since the times of the Romans who associated Portugal with their God Bacchus today the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes some of the best Portuguese wines are Vinho Verde vinho albariño Vinho dude Oro vinho du Alentejo Vinho dude au vin ho da Barada and the sweet port wine Madeira wine and the Moscatel from suitable and Fabio’s port and Madeira are particularly appreciated in a wide range of places around the world topic music Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres the traditional one as the Portuguese folk music which has deep roots in local costumes having as instruments bagpipes drums flutes tambourines accordions and small guitars cavaquinho apart Portuguese folk music other renowned genre as fado a melancholic urban music originated in Lisbon in the nineteenth century probably inside bohemian environments usually associated with the Portuguese guitar and saudade or longing Coimbra fado a unique type of troubadour serenading fado is also noteworthy internationally notable performers include amália rodrigues carlos paratus jose Afonso Mariza carlos do carmo antonio chang-ho mesa and Madrid es in the classical music domain Portugal is represented by names as the pianist Sartor Pizarro Maria Joe al Perez sake where Acosta the violinists carlos de Monsieur Ardo Ribeiro and in the past by the great cellist galore Mina Suja notable composers include Jose Vienna da Matta Carlos Ashis jawad domingos BOM tempo jawad de Sousa Carvalho Luis de Freitas Bronco and his student Jolie Braga Santos Fernando Lopez graça Emanuel Nunez and Sergio Acevedo similarly contemporary composers such as Nuno Malo and Miguel de lavera have achieved some international success writing in addition to folk fado in classical music other genres are present at portugal like pop and other types of modern music particularly from North America in the United Kingdom as well as a wide range of Portuguese Caribbean Lucia phone African and Brazilian artists and bands artists with international recognition include Dulce pone test moon spell Baraka psalm sistema blasted mechanism David Carrera and the gift with the three latter being nominees for MTV Europe Music Award Portugal has several summer music festivals such as festival pseudo stins ambu hara dumar festival de parentis Decorah in Paredes Decorah festival Villard Amoros near kameena boom festival in Adana and nova municipality nos alive sumo Summerfest in ericeira rock and Rio Lisboa and super buck super rock in Greater Lisbon out of the summer season Portugal has a large number of festivals designed more to an urban audience like Flo Fester hip hop Porto furthermore one of the largest international goa trance festival takes place in central portugal every two years the boom festival that is also the only festival in portugal to win international awards European festival award 2010 green and clean festival of the year and the greener festival award outstanding 2008 and 2010 there is also the student festivals of queima das fitas are major events in a number of cities across Portugal in 2005 Portugal held the MTV Europe Music Awards in pavilhão Atlantic Oh Lisbon furthermore Portugal won the Eurovision Song Contest 2017 in Kiev with the song amar pillows dois presented by Salvador sobral and subsequently hosted the 2018 contest at the Altis arena in Lisbon topic visual arts Portugal has a rich history in painting the first well-known painters date back to the 15th century like Nuno gonçalves were part of the late Gothic painting period during the Renaissance Portuguese painting was highly influenced by North European painting in the Baroque period johanna de Beados in Viera Lucy tano were the most prolific painters Jose mal hua known for his work photo in Colombo no bordello Pinero who painted the portraits of Teofilo Braga and Antero de cuenta were both references in naturalist painting the 20th century saw the arrival of modernism and along with it came the most prominent Portuguese painters Amedeo de Souza Cardozo who was heavily influenced by French painters particularly the de Lonny’s Robert and Sonya among his best-known works as cancel popular Russa IO Figaro another great modernist painters writers were Carlos Botelho and al-madinah Guerrero’s friend to the poet Fernando Pessoa who painted his Pasillas portrait he was deeply influenced by both cubist and futurist trends prominent international figures in visual arts nowadays include painters Vieira da Silva Giulio Palmer Helen de Almeida Joanna Vasconcelos Giulio sarmento and Paula Riga topic sport you football is the most popular sport in Portugal there are several football competitions ranging from local amateur to world-class professional level the legendary Eusebio is still a major symbol of Portuguese football history FIFA World Player of the Year winners Luis Figo and Cristiano Ronaldo who won the FIFA Ballon d’Or are two world-class Portuguese football players Portuguese football managers are also noteworthy with Jose Mourinho and Fernando Santos being among the most renowned the Portugal national football team Selecao nacio now the 1:1 UEFA European Championship title the UEFA Euro 2016 with a1 2-0 victory in the final over France the tournament hosts in addition Portugal finished second in the Euro 2004 held in Portugal third in the 1966 FIFA World Cup and fourth in the 2006 FIFA World Cup at youth level Portugal have won two FIFA World Youth Championships in 1989 and 1991 and several UEFA European Youth Championships SL Benfica Sporting CP and FC Porto are the largest sports clubs by popularity and by number of trophies one often known as OS tres grandes the big three they have won eight titles in the European UEFA club competitions were present in many finals and have been regular contenders in the last stages almost every season other than football many Portuguese sports clubs including the big three compete in several other sports events with a varying level of success and popularity these may include roller hockey basketball futsal handball and volleyball the Portuguese football federation fpf Federer South Portuguese a de futebol annually hosts the Algarve Cup a prestigious women backquote as football tournament that has been celebrated in the Algarve en part of Portugal the Portuguese national rugby union team qualified for the 2007 Rugby World Cup and the Portuguese national rugby sevens team has played in the world rugby sevens series in athletics the Portuguese have won a number of gold silver and bronze medals in the European world in Olympic Games competition cycling with Volta of Portugal being the most important race is also a popular sports event and include professional cycling teams such as Sporting CP Boavista Clube de sac lismo de tavera and união cyclist Adam AIA the country has also achieved notable performances in sports like fencing judo kite surf rowing sailing surfing shooting Taekwondo triathlon and wind surf owning several European and world titles the Paralympic athletes have also conquered many medals in sports like swimming boccia athletics and wrestling in motorsport Portugal as internationally noted for the rally of Portugal and the Easter L Algarve circuits and the revived pour to Street circuit which holds a stage of the WTCC every two years as well as for a number of internationally noted pilots in varied motorsports in equestrian sports Portugal won the only horse ball Pato world championship in 2006 achieved the third position in the first horse Ball World Cup organised in Ponte de Lima Portugal in 2008 and has achieved several victories in the European working equitation championship in water sports Portugal has three major sports swimming water polo and surfing the country also annually hosts one of the stages of the world surf league men’s championship tour the mio Rip Curl Pro Portugal in the super turbos beach in Peniche northern Portugal has its own original martial art jhagadu pal in which the fighters use staffs to confront one or several opponents other popular sport related recreational outdoor activities with thousands of enthusiasts nationwide include airsoft fishing golf hiking hunting and orienteering Portugal is one of the world’s best golf destinations it has received several awards by the World Golf Awards pick see also index of Portugal related articles outline of Portugal topic notes topic references you sources bibliography topic external links news about Portugal from the Portuguese American Journal Portugal the World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency Portugal at UCB libraries govpubs Portugal at curly Portugal profile from the BBC news national english-language newspaper wikimedia atlas of portugal geographic data related to portugal at openstreetmap national wine website portuguese pamphlets collection from the rare book and special collections division at the Library of Congress government official Portuguese government website in English in Portuguese official Parliament website trade world bank summary trade statistics Portugal travel official travel in tourism office website official Portuguese government travel media website official Portuguese golf travel media website


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