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Nicaragua | Wikipedia audio article

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Nicaragua listen Spanish Nicaragua officially the Republic of Nicaragua Spanish Republican in Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American isthmus bordered by Honduras to the northwest the Caribbean to the east Costa Rica to the south and the Pacific Ocean to the southwest Managua is the country’s capital and largest city and is also the third-largest city in Central America behind Tegucigalpa in Guatemala City the multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous European African and Asian heritage the main language is Spanish native tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak their own languages in English originally inhabited by various indigenous cultures since ancient times the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century Nicaragua gained independence from Spain in 1821 the Mosquito Coast followed a different historical path with the English colonizing it in the 17th century and later coming under the British rule as well as some minor Spanish interludes in the 19th century it became an autonomous territory of Nicaragua in 1860 and the northernmost part of it was later transferred to Honduras in 1960 since its independence Nicaragua has undergone periods of political unrest dictatorship occupation and fiscal crisis leading to the Nicaraguan revolution of the 1960’s and 1970’s and the Contra war of the 1980s the mixture of cultural traditions has generated substantial diversity in folklore cuisine music and literature particularly the latter given the literary contributions of Nicaraguan poets and writers such as Ruben Dario known as the land of lakes and volcanoes Nicaragua is also home to the second largest rainforest of the Americas the country has set a goal of 90% renewable energy by the year 2020 the Biological Diversity warm tropical climate and active volcanoes make Nicaragua an increasingly popular tourist destination topic etymology there are two prevailing theories on how the name Nicaragua came to be the first is that the name was coined by Spanish colonists based on the name nikkor al who is the chieftain or cacique of a powerful indigenous tribe encountered by the Spanish conquistador Gil Gonzales Davila during his entry into southwestern Nicaragua in 1522 this theory holds that the name Nicaragua was formed from Nicaragua which means water in Spanish to reference the fact that there are two large lakes and several other bodies of water within the country however as of 2002 it was determined that the caciques real name was Mike Wilma chrisley which meant five deaths in the Nahuatl language rather than nikkor al the second theory is that the country’s name comes from any of the following Nahuatl words Nick and a wack which meant Anahuac reached this far or the ‘no huis came this far or those who come from Anahuac came this far nikka nahua which meant here are the new huis or nick atl na walk which meant here by the water or surrounded by water you topic history topic pre-colombian history paleo Americans first inhabited what is now known as Nicaragua as far back as 12,000 BCE in later pre-columbian times nicaragua’s indigenous people were part of the intermediate area between the Mesoamerican and Andean cultural regions and within the influence of the ismo colombian area nicaragua central region and its caribbean coast were inhabited by macro chiptune language ethnic groups they had coalesced in Central America and migrated also to present-day northern Colombia and nearby areas they lived a life based primarily on hunting and gathering as well as fishing and performing slash-and-burn agriculture at the end of the 15th century western Nicaragua was inhabited by several different indigenous peoples related by culture to the Mesoamerican civilizations of the Aztec and Maya and by language to the Mesoamerican linguistic area the court ages were main language ethnic groups who had arrived in Nicaragua from what is now the Mexican state of Chiapas sometime around 800 seee the Pipal nikkor out people were a branch of know who is who spoke the Nahuatl dialect and like the court agus they too had come from Chiapas to Nicaragua in approximately 1200 CE II prior to that the pit bull Niklaus had been associated with the Toltec civilization both the kora Tigers and the pit bull Nikki rouse were originally from Mexico’s Cholula Valley and had gradually migrated southward additionally there were trade related colonies in Nicaragua that had been set up by the Aztecs starting in the 14th century Spanish era 15 22 to 1821 in 1502 on his fourth voyage Christopher Columbus became the first European known to have reached what is now Nicaragua as he sailed south east toward the Isthmus of Panama Columbus explored the Mosquito Coast on the Atlantic side of Nicaragua but did not encounter any indigenous people 20 years later the Spaniards returned to Nicaragua this time to its southwestern part the first attempt to conquer Nicaragua was by the conquistador Gil Gonzales de Villa who had arrived in Panama in January 1520 in 1522 Gonzales Davila ventured into the area that later became known as the Rivas Department of Nicaragua it was there that he encountered an indigenous Nahua tribe led by a chieftain named Mac Wilma Chris Lee whose name has sometimes been erroneously referred to as Nik corral or Nicaragua at the time the tribes capital city was called quokka Boca Gonzales Davila had brought along two indigenous interpreters who had been taught the Spanish language and thus he was able to have a discourse with mcwilley chrisley after exploring and gathering gold in the Fertile western valleys Gonzales Davila and his men were attacked and driven off by Cora tagging natives led by the chieftain during the Spanish attempted to convert the tribes to Christianity the people in mcwillie Quist Lee’s tribe were baptized but during and however was openly hostile to the Spaniards the first Spanish permanent settlements were founded in 1524 that year the conquistador Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba founded two of Nicaragua’s principal cities granada on lake nicaragua was the first settlement followed by leon at a location west of Lake Managua Cordoba soon built defenses for the cities and fought against incursions by other conquistadors Cordoba was later publicly beheaded as a consequence for having defied the authority of his superior Pedro arias Davila cordobas tomb and remains were discovered in 2000 in the ruins of leon viejo the clashes among Spanish forces did not impede their destruction of the indigenous people and their culture the series of battles came to be known as the war of the captains Pedro Arya’s Davila was a winner although he had lost control of Panama he moved to Nicaragua and successful established his base in Leon in 1527 Leon became the capital of the colony through adroit diplomatic machinations Arya’s Davila became the colony’s first governor without women in their parties the Spanish conquerors took nahua and court Agra wives and partners beginning the multi-ethnic mix of native and European stock now known as mestizo which constitutes the great majority of the population in western Nicaragua many indigenous people died as a result of new infectious diseases compounded by neglect by the Spaniards who controlled their subsistence furthermore a large number of other natives were captured and transported to Panama and Peru between 15 26 and 1540 where they were forced to perform slave labor in 1610 the mama tombeau volcano erupted destroying the city of Leon the city was rebuilt northwest of the original which is now known as the ruins of Leon Viejo during the American Revolutionary War Central America was subject to conflict between Britain and Spain British Navy admiral horatio nelson led expeditions in the battle of san fernando de o MOA in 1779 and on the San Juan River in 1780 the latter of which had temporary success before being abandoned due to disease topic independence 1821 the captaincy General of Guatemala was dissolved in September 1821 with the act of independence of Central America and Nicaragua soon became part of the first Mexican Empire after the monarchy of the first Mexican Empire was overthrown in 1823 Nicaragua joined the newly formed United Provinces of Central America which was later renamed as the Federal Republic of Central America Nicaragua finally became an independent republic in 1838 rivalry between the liberal elite of leon and the conservative elite of granada characterized the early years of independence and often degenerated into civil war particularly during the 1840s and 1850s Managua was chosen as the nation’s capital in 1852 to allay the rivalry between the two feuding cities during the days of the California Gold Rush Nicaragua provided a route for travelers from the eastern United States to journey to California by sea via the use of the San Juan River and Lake Nicaragua invited by the Liberals in 1855 to join their struggle against the Conservatives a United States adventurer and filibuster named William Walker set himself up as president of Nicaragua after conducting a farcical election in 1856 Costa Rica Honduras and other Central American countries United to drive Walker out of Nicaragua in 1857 after which a period of three decades of conservative rule ensued Great Britain which had claimed the Mosquito Coast as a protectorate since 1655 delegated the area to Honduras in 1859 before transferring it to Nicaragua in 1860 the Mosquito Coast remained an autonomous area until 1894 Jose Santos zalaya president of Nicaragua from 1893 to 1909 negotiated the annexation of the Mosquito Coast to the rest of Nicaragua in his honor the region was named zalaya department throughout the late 19th century the United States and several European powers considered a scheme to build a canal across Nicaragua linking the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic topic United States occupation 1909 233 in 1909 the United States supported the conservative lead forces rebelling against President Zelaya u.s.Motives included differences over the proposed Nicaragua canal Nicaragua’s potential as a dis stabilizing influence in the region and zealous attempts to regulate foreign access to Nicaraguan natural resources on November 18 1909 US warships were sent to the area after 500 revolutionaries including two Americans were executed by order of zalaya the u.s. justified the intervention by claiming to protect US lives and property zeliha resigned later that year in August 1912 the president of Nicaragua Adolfo Diaz requested the Secretary of War General Luis Mina to resign for fear he was leading an insurrection Mena fled Managua with his brother the Chief of Police of Managua to start an insurrection when the US delegation asked president Diaz to ensure the safety of American citizens and property during the insurrection he replied he could not and asked the United States to intervene in the conflict United States Marines occupied Nicaragua from 1912 to 1933 except for a nine-month period beginning in 1925 in 1914 the Brien Chamorro treaty was signed giving the u.s.Control over a proposed canal through Nicaragua as well as leases for potential canal defenses following the evacuation of US Marines another violent conflict between liberals and conservatives took place in 1926 which resulted in the return of US Marines from 1927 until 1933 rebel General Augusto Cesare Sandino led a sustained guerrilla war first against the conservative regime and subsequently against the US Marines whom he fought for over five years when the Americans left in 1933 they set up the Guardia nacio now National Guard a combined military and police force trained and equipped by the Americans and designed to be loyal to US interests after the US Marines withdrew from Nicaragua in January 1933 Sandino and the newly elected administration of President Juan Bautista tsukasa reached an agreement by which Sandino would cease his guerrilla activities in return for amnesty a grant of land for an agricultural colony and retention of an armed band of 100 men for a year however due to a growing hostility between Sandino and National Guard director Anastasio Somoza Garcia and a fear of armed opposition from Sandino Somoza Garcia decided to order his assassination Sandino was invited by Tsukasa to have dinner and sign a peace treaty at the presidential house in managua on the night of February 21st 1934 after leaving the presidential house sandino’s car was stopped by soldiers of the National Guard and they kidnapped him later that night Sandino was assassinated by soldiers of the National Guard hundreds of men women and children from sandino’s agricultural colony were executed later pick Somoza dynasty 1927 to 1979 Nicaragua has experienced several military dictatorship the longest being the hereditary dictatorship of the Somoza family who ruled for 43 non-consecutive years during the 20th century the Somoza family came to power as part of a u.s.Engineered pact in 1927 that stipulated the formation of the guardia nacional to replace the marines who had long reigned in the country Somoza garcia slowly eliminated officers in the National Guard who might have stood in his way and then deposed tsukasa and became president on January 1st 1937 in a rigged election in 1941 during the second world war Nicaragua declared war on Japan the 8th of December Germany the 11th of December Italy the 11th of December Bulgaria the 19th of December Hungary the 19th of December and Romania the 19th of December out of these six Axis countries only Romania reciprocated declaring war on Nicaragua on the same day the 19th of December 1941 no soldiers were sent to the war but Somoza Garcia did seize the occasion to confiscate properties held by German Nicaraguan residents in 1945 Nicaragua was among the first countries to ratify the United Nations Charter on September 21st 1956 Somoza Garcia was shot to death by Rigoberto Lopez Paris a 27 year old liberal Nicaraguan poet luis somoza debayle the eldest son of the late president was appointed president by the Congress and officially took charge of the country he is remembered by some for being moderate but was in power only for a few years and then died of a heart attack his successor as president was Rene Gutierrez who most Nicaraguans viewed as nothing more than a puppet of the Somozas Somoza Garcia’s youngest son anastasio somoza debayle often referred to simply as Somoza became president in 1967 an earthquake in 1972 destroyed nearly 90% of Managua creating major losses instead of helping to rebuild Managua Somoza siphoned off relief money the mishandling of relief money also prompted Pittsburgh Pirates star Roberto Clemente to personally lyta managua on December 31st 1972 but he died enroute in an airplane accident even the economic elite were reluctant to support Somoza as he had acquired monopolies in industries that were key to rebuilding the nation the Somoza family was among a few families or groups of influential firms which reaped most of the benefits of the country’s growth from the 1950s to the 1970s when samosa was deposed by the Sandinistas in 1979 the family’s worth was estimated to be between 500 million dollars and 1.5 billion dollars topic Nicaraguan revolution 1960s – 1990 in 1961 carlos fonseca looked back to the historical figure of Sandino and along with two other people one of whom was believed to be casimiro Sotelo who was later assassinated founded the Sandinista National Liberation Front FSLN after the 1972 earthquake and Somozas apparent corruption the ranks of the Sandinistas were flooded with young disaffected Nicaraguans who no longer had anything to lose in december 1974 a group of the FSLN in an attempt to kidnap US ambassador Turner Shelton held some Managua Rd Gore’s hostage after killing the host former Agriculture Minister Jose Maria Castillo until the Somoza government met their demands for a large ransom and free transport to Cuba Somoza granted this then subsequently sent his National Guard out into the countryside to look for the perpetrators of the kidnapping described by opponents of the kidnapping us terrorists On January 10 to 1978 pedro joaquin gemoro Cardenal the editor of the national newspaper la prensa and ardent opponent of samosa was assassinated it is alleged that the planners and perpetrators of the murder were at the highest echelons of the Somoza regime the Sandinistas forcefully took power in July 1979 Alstom Somoza and prompting the exodus of the majority of Nicaragua’s middle class wealthy landowners and professionals many of whom settled in the United States the Carter Administration decided to work with the new government while attaching a provision for aid forfeiture if it was found to be assisting insurgencies in neighboring countries Somoza fled the country and eventually ended up in Paraguay where he was assassinated in September 1980 allegedly by members of the Argentinian revolutionary Workers Party in 1980 the Carter Administration provided 60 million dollars in aid to Nicaragua under the Sandinistas but the aid was suspended when the administration obtained evidence of Nicaraguan shipment of arms to El Salvadoran rebels in response to the coming to power of the Sandinistas various rebel groups collectively known as the Contras were formed to oppose the new government the Reagan administration authorized the CIA to help the Contra rebels with funding armaments and training the Contras operated out of camps in the neighbouring countries of Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south they engaged in a systematic campaign of terror amongst the rural Nicaraguan population to disrupt the social reform projects of the Sandinistas several historians have criticized the Contra campaign in the Reagan administration support for it citing the brutality and numerous human rights violations of the Contras Laramie and polikov for example describe the destruction of health centers schools and cooperatives at the hands of the rebels and others have contended that murder rape and torture occurred on a large scale in Contra dominated areas the United States also carried out a campaign of economic sabotage and disrupted shipping by planting underwater mines in Nicaragua sport of corinto an action condemned by the International Court of Justice as illegal the u.s.Also sought to place economic pressure on the Sandinistas and the Reagan administration imposed a full trade embargo the Sandinistas were also accused of human rights abuses in the Nicaraguan general elections of 1984 which were judged to have been free and fair the Sandinistas won the parliamentary election and their leader Daniel Ortega won the presidential election the Reagan administration criticized the elections as a sham based on the charge that Arturo Cruz the candidate nominated by the coordinate or a Democratic in ikura Gwen se comprising three right-wing political parties did not participate in the elections however the administration privately argued against Cruz’s participation for fear his involvement would legitimize the elections and thus weaken the case for American aid to the Contras according to Martin creel the results of the election were rigged after the US Congress prohibited federal funding of the Contras in 1983 the Reagan administration nonetheless illegally continued to back them by Coverley selling arms to Iran and channelling the proceeds to the Contras the iran-contra affair for which several members of the Reagan administration were convicted of felonies the International Court of Justice in regard to the case of Nicaragua v United States in 1984 found the United States of America was under an obligation to make reparation to the republic of nicaragua for all injury caused to nicaragua by certain breaches of obligations under customary international law and treaty law committed by the United States of America during the war between the Contras and the Sandinistas 30,000 people were killed topic postwar 1990 present in the Nicaraguan general election 1990 a coalition of anti sandanista parties from the left and right of the political spectrum led by Violeta Chamorro the widow of Pedro Joaquim tomorrrow Cardenal defeated the Sandinistas the defeat shocked the Sandinistas who had expected to win exit polls of Nicaraguans reported tomorrow’s victory over Ortega was achieved with a 55 percent majority gemoro was the first woman president of Nicaragua Ortega vowed he would govern desde Abajo from below Chamorro came to office with an economy in ruins primarily because of the financial and social costs of the Contra war with the Sandinista led government in the next election the Nicaraguan general election 1996 Daniel Ortega and the Sandinistas of the FSLN were defeated again this time by Arnaldo Aleman of the constitutional Liberal Party PLC in the 2001 elections the PLC again defeated the FSLN with a LeMans vice president enrique Bolano succeeding him as president subsequently however Aleman was convicted and sentenced in 2003 to 20 years in prison for embezzlement money laundering and corruption liberal and sandanista parliament members subsequently combined to strip the presidential powers of president bolaños and his ministers calling for his resignation and threatening impeachment the Sandinistas said they no longer supported Bolanos after US Secretary of State Colin Powell told Bolanos to keep his distance from the FSLN this slow-motion coup d’etat was averted partially by pressure from the Central American presidents who vowed not to recognize any movement that removed Bolanos the u.s.Dios and the European Union also opposed the action before the general elections on November 5th 2006 the National Assembly passed a bill further restricting abortion in Nicaragua as a result Nicaragua is one of five countries in the world where abortion is illegal with no exceptions legislative and presidential elections took place on November 5th 2006 Ortega returned to the presidency with 37 point nine nine percent of the vote this percentage was enough to win the presidency outright because of a change in electoral which lowered the percentage requiring a runoff election from 45% to 35% with a 5% margin of victory Nicaragua’s 2011 general election resulted in reelection of ortega with a landslide victory and sixty-two point four six percent of the vote in 2014 the National Assembly approved changes to the Constitution allowing Ortega to run for a third successive term in November 2016 Ortega was elected for his third consecutive term his fourth overall international monitoring of the elections was initially prohibited and as a result the validity of the elections has been disputed but observation by the OHS was announced in October Ortega was reported by Nicaraguan election officials as having received 72 percent of the vote however the broad front for democracy fat having promoted boycotts of the elections claimed that 70% of voters had abstained while election officials claimed 65.8% participation in April 2018 demonstrations opposed to decree increasing taxes and reducing benefits in the country’s pension system local independent press organizations had documented at least 19 dead and over 100 missing in the ensuing conflict a reporter from NPR spoke to protesters who explained that while the initial issue was about the pension reform the uprisings that spread across the country reflected many grievances about the government’s time in office and that the fight is for president Ortega and his vice president wife to step down April 24th 2018 marked the day of the greatest march in opposition of the Sandinista party on may 2nd 2018 University student leaders publicly announced that they give the government 7 days to set a date and time for a dialogue that was promised to the people due to the recent events of repression the students also scheduled another March on that same day for a peaceful protest as of May 2018 estimates of the death toll were as high as 63 many of them student protesters and the wounded totaled more than 400 following a working visit from May 17th to 21 the inter-american Commission on Human Rights adopted precautionary measures aimed at protecting members of the student movement and their families after testimonies indicated the majority of them had acts of violence and death threats for their participation in the last week of May thousands who accuse mr.Ortega and his wife of acting like dictators joined in resuming anti-government rallies after attempted peace talks have remained unresolved topic geography and climate Nicaragua occupies a landmass of 130,000 967 square kilometers 50 thousand five hundred sixty-seven square miles Nicaragua has three distinct geographical regions the Pacific lowlands fertile valleys which the Spanish colonists settled the Americans north Central Highlands and the Mosquito Coast Atlantic lowlands Caribbean lowlands the low plains of the Atlantic coast are 97 kilometres 60 miles wide in areas they have long been exploited for their natural resources on the Pacific side of Nicaragua are the two largest freshwater lakes in Central America Lake Managua and Lake Nicaragua surrounding these lakes and extending to their Northwest along the Rift Valley of the Gulf of Fonseca are fertile lowland Plains with soil highly enriched by ash from nearby volcanoes of the central highlands nicaragua’s abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems contribute to mezzo Americas designation as a biodiversity hotspot Nicaragua has made efforts to become less dependent on fossil fuels and it expects to acquire 90% of its energy from renewable resources by the year 2020 nearly one-fifth of Nicaragua is designated as protected areas like national parks nature reserves and biological reserves geophysical II Nicaragua is surrounded by the Caribbean plate an oceanic tectonic plate underlying Central America in the kokis played since Central America is a major subduction zone Nicaragua hosts most of the Central American volcanic arc topic Pacific lowlands in the west of the country these lowlands consist of a broad hot fertile plain punctuating this plain are several large volcanoes of the Cordillera Lost Mario’s mountain range including Mambazo just outside Granada and mama tombeau nearly on the lowland area runs from the gulf of fonseca to nicaragua specific border with costa rica south of Lake Nicaragua Lake Nicaragua is the largest freshwater lake in Central America xx largest in the world and is home to some of the world’s rare freshwater sharks Nicaraguan shark the Pacific lowlands region is the most populous with over half of the nation’s population the eruptions of western nicaragua’s 40 volcanoes many of which are still active have sometimes devastated settlements but also have enriched the land with layers of fertile ash the geologic activity that produces volcanism also breeds powerful earthquakes tremors occur regularly throughout the Pacific zone and earthquakes have nearly destroyed the capital city Managua more than once most of the Pacific zone as tierra caliente de hot land of tropical Spanish America at elevations under 610 metres 2,000 feet temperatures remain virtually constant throughout the year with highs ranging between 29.4 and thirty two point two degrees Celsius 85 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit after a dry season lasting from November to April rains begin in May and continue to October giving the Pacific lowlands 1,016 to 1524 millimetres 40 to 60 and of precipitation good soils in a favorable climate combined to make western Nicaragua the country’s economic and demographic center the southwestern shore of Lake Nicaragua lies within 24 kilometres 15 miles of the Pacific Ocean thus the lake in the San Juan River were often proposed in the 19th century as the longest part of a canal route across the Central American isthmus canal proposals were periodically revived in the 20th and 21st centuries roughly a century after the opening of the Panama Canal the prospect of a Nicaraguan eco channel remains a topic of interest in addition to its beach and resort communities the Pacific lowlands can Taine’s most of nicaragua Spanish colonial architecture and artifacts cities such as leon and granada abound in colonial architecture founded in 1524 granada is the oldest colonial city in the Americas soppec North Central Highlands northern Nicaragua is the most diversified region producing coffee cattle milk products vegetables wood gold and flowers its extensive forests rivers in geography are suited for ecotourism the Central Highlands are a significantly less populated and economically developed area in the north between Lake Nicaragua and the Caribbean forming the country’s tierra temp lata or temperate land at elevations between 610 and 1500 24 metres 2,000 and 5,000 feet the Highlands enjoy mild temperatures with daily highs of 23 point nine to twenty six point seven degrees Celsius seventy-five to eighty degrees Fahrenheit this region has a longer wetter rainy season than the Pacific lowlands making erosion of problem on it’s steep slopes rugged terrain poor soils and low population density characterized the area as a whole but the northwestern valleys are fertile and well settled the area has a cooler climate than the Pacific lowlands about a quarter of the country’s agricultural with coffee grown on the higher slopes Oaks Pines Moss ferns and orchids are abundant in the cloud forests of the region bird life in the forests of the central region includes resplendent Quetzal z– gold finches hummingbirds jays and tuka nets topic Caribbean lowlands this large rainforest region is irrigated by several large rivers and is sparsely populated the area has 57 percent of the territory of the nation and most of its mineral resources it has been heavily exploited but much natural diversity remains the rio coco is the largest river in Central America it forms the border with Honduras the Caribbean coastline is much more sinuous than it’s generally straight Pacific counterpart lagoons and Delta’s make it very irregular nicaragua’s misawa’s biosphere reserve as in the atlantic lowlands part of which is located in the municipality of siena it protects seven thousand three hundred square kilometers 1 million eight hundred thousand acres of lamas kijiye forest almost seven percent of the country’s area making it the largest rainforest north of the Amazon in Brazil the municipalities of Siena Rosita and Bonanza known as the mining triangle are located in the region known as the Ron in the Caribbean lowlands bonanza still contains an active gold mine owned by hem ko si una and Rosita do not have active minds but panning for gold is still very common in the region Nicaragua’s tropical east coast is very different from the rest of the country the climate is predominantly tropical with high temperature and high humidity around the area’s principal city of blue fields English is widely spoken along with the official Spanish the population more closely resembles that found in many typical Caribbean ports than the rest of Nicaragua a great variety of birds can be observed including Eagles took hens parakeets and macaws other animal life in the area includes different species of monkeys and eaters white-tailed deer and tapirs topic nature and environment topic flora and fauna Nicaragua is home to a rich variety of plants and animals Nicaragua is located in the middle of the Americas and this privileged location has enabled the country to serve as host to a great biodiversity this factor along with the weather and light altitude ”’l variations allows the country to Harvard 248 species of amphibians and reptiles 183 species of mammals 705 bird species 640 fish species and about 5,000 796 species of plants the region of great forests is located on the eastern side of the country rainforests are found in the rio san juan department and in the autonomous regions of Ron and RAAS this biome groups together the greatest biodiversity in the country and is largely protected by the Indio Maya’s biological reserve in the south and the Bissau is biosphere reserve in the north the Nicaraguan jungles which represent about 2.4 million acres are considered the lungs of Central America and comprise the second largest sized rainforest of the Americas there are currently 78 protected areas in Nicaragua covering more than 22,000 square kilometres 8,500 square miles or about 17% of its land mass these include wildlife refuges and nature reserves that shelter a wide range of ecosystems there are more than 1400 animal species classified thus far in Nicaragua some 12,000 species of plants have been classified thus far in Nicaragua with an estimated 5,000 species not yet classified the bull shark is a species of shark that can survive for an extended period of time in freshwater it can be found in Lake Nicaragua and the San Juan River where it is often referred to as the Nicaragua shark Nicaragua has recently banned freshwater fishing of the Nicaragua shark in the sawfish in response to the declining populations of these animals topic climate change Nicaragua was one of the few countries that did not enter an IND see at cop21 Nicaragua initially chose not to join the Paris climate Accord because it felt that much more action as required by individual countries on restricting global temperature rise however in October 2017 Nicaragua made the decision to join the agreement it ratified this agreement on November 22nd 2017 topic government politics of nicaragua takes place in a framework of a presidential representative Democratic Republic whereby the president of Nicaragua is both head of state and head of government and of a multi-party system executive power is exercised by the government legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly the judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature between 2007 and 2009 Nicaragua’s major political parties discussed the possibility of going from a presidential system to a parliamentary system their reason there would be a clear differentiation between the head of government Prime Minister and the head of state president nevertheless it was later argued that the true reason behind this proposal was to find a legal way for president Ortega to stay in power after January 2012 when his second and last government period was expected to end Ortega was re-elected to a third term in November 2016 topic foreign relations Nicaragua pursues an independent foreign policy Nicaragua is in territorial disputes with Colombia over the archipelago to San Andres y providencia and key to suing yo bank and with Costa Rica over a boundary dispute involving the San Juan River topic military the Armed Forces of Nicaragua consists of various military contingents Nicaragua has an army Navy in an Air Force there are roughly 14,000 active-duty personnel which is much less compared to the numbers seem during the Nicaraguan revolution although the Army has had a rough military history a portion of its forces which were known as the National Guard became integrated with what is now the National Police of Nicaragua in essence the police became a gender Mary the National Police of Nicaragua are rarely if ever labeled as a gender Mary the other elements and manpower that were not devoted to the National Police were sent over to cultivate the new army of Nicaragua the age to serve in the Armed Forces a 17 in conscription is not imminent as of 2006 the military budget was roughly 0.7% of Nicaragua’s expenditures topic law enforcement the National Police of Nicaragua force in Spanish la policía Nacional Nicaraguan se is the National Police of Nicaragua the forces in charge of regular police functions and at times works in conjunction with the Nicaraguan military making it an indirect and rather subtle version of a gender Mary however the Nicaraguan National Police work separately and have a different established set of norms than the nation’s military Nicaragua is the safest country in Central America and one of the safest in Latin America according to the United Nations Development Programme with a homicide rate of 8.7 per 100,000 inhabitants topic administrative divisions Nicaragua as a unitary Republic for administrative purposes it is divided into 15 departments departamentos and two self-governing regions autonomous communities based on the Spanish model the departments are then subdivided into 153 Mooney CBO’s municipalities the two autonomous regions are the north Caribbean coast autonomous region and South Caribbean coast autonomous region often referred to as RAC CN and are a CCS respectively topic economy Nicaragua is among the poorest countries in the Americas its gross domestic product GDP in purchasing power parity PPP in 2008 was estimated at seventeen point three seven billion dollars USD agriculture represents 17% of GDP the highest percentage in Central America remittances account for over fifteen percent of the Nicaraguan GDP close to 1 billion dollars are sent to the country by Nicaraguans living abroad the economy grew at a rate of about four percent in 2011 according to the United Nations Development Programme 48% of the population of Nicaragua live below the poverty line seventy nine point nine percent of the population live with less than $2 per day according to UN figures 80 percent of the indigenous people who make up five percent of the population live on less than one dollar per day according to the World Bank Nicaragua ranked as the 123rd out of 190 best economy for starting a business in 2007 nicaragua’s economy was labeled 62.7% free by the Heritage Foundation with high levels of fiscal government labor investment financial and trade freedom it ranked as the 61st freest economy and 14th of 29 in the Americas in March 2007 Poland and Nicaragua signed an agreement to write-off thirty point six million dollars which was borrowed by the Nicaraguan government in the 1980s inflation reduced from thirty three thousand five hundred percent in nineteen eighty eight to nine point four five percent in 2006 and the foreign debt was cut in half Nicaragua is primarily an agricultural country agriculture constitutes 60 percent of its total exports which annually yield approximately us 300 million dollars nearly two thirds of the coffee crop comes from the northern part of the central highlands in the area north and east of the town of Esteli tobacco grown in the same northern highlands region as coffee has become an increasingly important cash crop since the 1990s with annual exports of leaf and cigars in the neighborhood of 200 million dollars per year soil erosion and pollution from the heavy you of pesticides have become serious concerns in the cotton district yields and exports have both been declining since 1985 today most of nicaragua’s bananas are grown in the northwestern part of the country near the port of corinto sugarcane is also grown in the same district cassava a root crop somewhat similar to the potato is an important food in tropical regions cassava is also the main ingredient in tapioca pudding nicaragua’s agricultural sector has benefited because of the country’s strong ties to Venezuela it is estimated that Venezuela will import approximately 200 million dollars in agricultural goods in the 1990s the government initiated efforts to diversify agriculture some of the new export oriented crops were peanuts sesame melons and onions fishing boats on the Caribbean side bring shrimp as well as lobsters into processing plants at Puerto Cabezas blue fields and Laguna de perlis a turtle fishery thrived on the Caribbean coast before it collapsed from over-exploitation mining is becoming a major industry in Nicaragua contributing less than 1% of gross domestic product GDP restrictions are being placed on lumbering due to increased environmental concerns about destruction of the rainforests but lumbering continues despite these obstacles indeed a single hardwood tree may be worth thousands of dollars during the war between the us-backed Contras and the government of the Sandinistas in the 1980s much of the country’s infrastructure was damaged or destroyed transportation throughout the nation is often inadequate for example one cannot travel all the way by highway from Managua to the Caribbean coast the road ends at the town of el Rama travelers have to transfer and make the rest of the trip by riverboat down the Rio Escondido a five-hour journey the centrum Erica power plant on the tumor river in the Central Highlands has been expanded and other hydroelectric projects have been undertaken to help provide electricity to the nation’s newer industries Nicaragua has long been considered as a possible site for a new sea-level canal that could supplement the Panama Canal Nicaragua’s minimum wage is among the lowest in the Americas and in the world remittances are equivalent to roughly 15% of the country’s gross domestic product growth in the mccoullough sector slowed in the first decade of the 21st century with rising competition from Asian markets particularly China land is the traditional basis of wealth in Nicaragua with great fortunes coming from the export of staples such as coffee cotton beef and sugar almost all of the upper-class and nearly 1/4 of the middle class are substantial landowners a 1985 government study classified 69.4% of the population as poor on the basis that they were unable to satisfy one or more of their basic needs in housing sanitary services water sewage and garbage collection education and employment the defining standards for this study were very low housing was considered substandard if it was constructed of discarded materials with dirt floors or if it was occupied by more than 4 persons per room rural workers are dependent on agricultural wage labor especially in coffee and cotton only a small fraction hold permanent jobs most are migrants who follow crops during the harvest period and find other work during the offseason the lower peasants are typically small holders without sufficient land to sustain a family they also joined the harvest labor force the upper peasants have sufficient resources to be economically independent they produce enough surplus beyond their personal needs to allow them to participate in the national and world markets the urban lower-class is characterized by the informal sector of the economy the informal sector consists of small scale enterprises that utilize traditional technologies and operate outside the legal regime of labor protections and taxation workers in the informal sector are self-employed unsalaried family workers or employees of small enterprises and they are generally poor Nicaragua’s informal sector workers include tinsmiths mattress makers seamstresses bakers shoemakers and carpenters people who take in laundry and ironing or prepare food for sale in the streets and thousands of peddlers owners of small businesses often operating out of their own homes and market stall operators some work alone but others labor in the small towers workshops factories that are responsible for a large share of the country’s industrial production because in formal sector earnings are generally very low few families can subsist on one income like most Latin American nations Nicaragua is also characterized by a very small upper-class roughly 2% of the population that is very wealthy and wields the political and economic power in the country that is not in the hands of foreign corporations and private industries these families are oligarchical in nature and have ruled Nicaragua for generations and their wealth is politically and economically horizontally and vertically integrated Nicaragua is currently a member of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas which is also known as Alba Alba has proposed creating a new currency the Sucre for use among its members in essence this means that the Nicaraguan Cordoba will be replaced with the Sucre other nations that will follow a similar pattern include Venezuela Ecuador Bolivia Honduras Cuba Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Dominica and Antigua and Barbuda Nicaragua is considering construction of a canal linking the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean which President Daniel Ortega has said will give Nicaraguans economic independence scientists have raised concerns about environmental impacts but the government has maintained that the canal will benefit the country by creating new jobs and potentially increasing its annual growth to an average of 8% per year the project was scheduled to begin construction in December 2014 however the Nicaragua canal has yet to be started topic tourism by 2006 tourism had become the second largest industry in Nicaragua previously tourism had grown about 70% nationwide during a period of seven years with rates of 10 percent to 16 percent annually the increase in growth led to the income from tourism to rise more than 300 percent over a period of 10 years the growth in tourism has also positively affected the agricultural commercial and finance industries as well as the construction industry President Daniel Ortega has stated his intention to use tourism to combat poverty throughout the country the results for nicaragua’s tourism driven economy have been significant with the nation welcoming 1 million tourists in a calendar year for the first time in its history in 2010 every year about 60,000 US citizens visit Nicaragua primarily businesspeople tourists and those visiting relatives some 5,300 people from the US reside in Nicaragua the majority of tourists who visit Nicaragua are from the US Central or South America and Europe according to the ministry of tourism of nicaragua i and tu are the colonial cities of leon and granada are the preferred spots for tourists also the cities of Mosiah Rivas and the likes of San Juan del Sur Ellis Channel the fortress of the Immaculate Conception Ometepe Island the mombacho volcano and the corn islands among other locations are the main tourist attractions in addition ecotourism sport fishing and surfing attract many tourists to Nicaragua according to the TV noticias news programme the main attractions in Nicaragua for tourists are the beaches the scenic routes the architecture of cities such as leone and granada ecotourism and Agri tourism particularly in northern nicaragua as a result of increased tourism Nicaragua has seen its foreign direct investment increased by seventy nine point one percent from 2007 to 2009 Nicaragua is referred to as the land of lakes and volcanoes due to the number of lagoons and lakes and the chain of volcanoes that runs from the north to the south along the country’s Pacific side today only seven of the 50 volcanoes in Nicaragua are consider active many of these volcanoes offer some great possibilities for tourists with activities such as hiking climbing camping and swimming in crater lakes the apoyo Lagoon natural reserve was created by the eruption of the apoyo volcano about 23,000 years ago which left a huge 7 km wide crater that gradually filled with water it is surrounded by the old crater wall the rim of the lagoon is lined with restaurants many of which have kayaks available besides exploring the forest around it many watersports are practiced in the lagoon most notably kayaking sand skiing has become a popular attraction at the Cerro Negro volcano in Leon both dormant and active volcanoes can be climbed some of the most visited volcanoes include the masaya volcano mama tombeau mombacho cosas guina and Ometepe ‘s maderas and concepción ecotourism aims to be ecologically and socially conscious it focuses on local culture wilderness and adventure nicaragua’s ecotourism is growing with every passing year it boasts a number of eco-tourist tours and perfect places for adventurers Nicaragua has three ecoregions the Pacific central and Atlantic which contain volcanoes tropical rainforests and agricultural land the majority of the eco-lodge is and other environmentally focused touristic destinations are found on Ometepe Island located in the middle of Lake Nicaragua just an hour’s boat ride from Grenada while summer foreign-owned such as the tropical permaculture Lodge at finca el zopi light others are owned by local families like the small but well acclaimed finca se Maria topic demographics according to a 2014 research published in the journal genetics and molecular biology European ancestry predominates in 69% of Nicaraguans followed by African ancestry in 20% and lastly Native American ancestry in 11% a Japanese research of genomic components in America’s demography demonstrated that on average the ancestry of Nicaraguans is 58 to 62 percent European 28% Native American and 14% African with a very small Near Eastern contribution non genetic data from the CIA World Factbook established that from nicaragua’s 2016 population of five million nine hundred sixty-six thousand seven hundred ninety-eight around sixty nine percent are mestizo 17 percent white five percent Native American and 9% black and other races this fluctuates with changes in migration patterns the population is 58 percent urban as of 2013 the capital Managua is the biggest city with an estimated population of 1 million 40 2641 in 2016 in 2005 over 5 million people lived in the pacific central and north regions and 700,000 in the caribbean region there is a growing expatriate community the majority of whom move for business investment or retirement from across the world such as from the US Canada Taiwan and European countries the majority have settled in Managua Grenada and San Juan del Sur many Nicaraguans live abroad particularly in Costa Rica the United States Spain Canada and other Central American countries Nicaragua has a population growth rate of 1.5% as of 2013 this is the result of one of the highest birth rates in the Western Hemisphere 24.9 / to the United Nations for the period 2005 to 2010 the death rate was 4.7 per 1000 during the same period according to the United Nations topic ethnic groups the majority of the Nicaraguan population is composed of mestizos roughly 69% 17% of Nicaragua’s population as of unmixed European stock with the majority of them being of Spanish descent while others are of German Italian English Turkish Danish or French ancestry about 9% of Nicaragua’s population as black and mainly resides on the country’s Caribbean or Atlantic coast the black population is mostly composed of black english-speaking Creoles who are the descendants of escaped or shipwrecked slaves many carry the name of Scottish settlers who brought slaves with them such as Campbell Gordon downs and Hodgson although many Creoles supported Somoza because of his close association with the u.s.They rallied to the Sandinista cause in July 1979 only to reject the Revolution soon afterwards in response to a new phase of westernization an imposition of central rule from Managua there is a smaller number of Garifuna a people of mixed West African Caribbean Arawak descent in the mid-1980s the government divided the zeliha Department consisting of the eastern half of the country into two autonomous regions and granted the black and indigenous people of this region limited self-rule within the Republic the remaining 5% of Nicaraguans are Native Americans the descendants of the country’s indigenous inhabitants Nicaragua’s pre-columbian population consisted of many indigenous groups in the western region the new who at Pipal nikkor out people were present along with other groups such as the court eiga people in the sub t office also known as Mara BIOS or hook and shoe the central region and the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua were inhabited by indigenous peoples who were macro chiptune language groups that had migrated to and from South America in ancient times primarily what is now Colombia and Venezuela these groups include the present-day matagalpa s– mosquitoes rama”s as well as meringue news and always who are also known as sumos in the 19th century there was a substantial indigenous minority but this group was largely assimilated culturally into the mestizo majority topic languages Nicaraguan Spanish has many indigenous influences and several distinguishing characteristics for example some Nicaraguans have a tendency to replace s with H when speaking although Spanish is spoken throughout the country has great variety vocabulary accents in colloquial language can vary between towns and departments on the caribbean coast indigenous languages english-based creole x’ and spanish are spoken the mosquito language spoken by the mosquito people is a first language and some other indigenous and a frozen Daan’s people as a second third or fourth language is the most commonly spoken indigenous language the indigenous missile Maltin languages of magna and u lwa are spoken by the respective peoples of the same names many mosquito milena and u lwa people also speak Mosquito Coast creole and a large majority also speak Spanish fewer than three dozen of nearly 2,000 drama people speak their chipton language fluently with nearly all Ram is speaking romic a creole in the vast majority speaking spanish linguists have attempted to document and revitalize the language over the past three decades the Garifuna people descendants of indigenous and a frozen people who came to nicaragua from honduras in the early 20th century have recently attempted to revitalize their walk and language the majority speak Mosquito Coast Creole as their first language and Spanish as their second the Creole or Creole people descendants of enslaved Africans brought to the Mosquito Coast during the British colonial period and European Chinese Arab and British West Indian immigrants also speak Mosquito Coast Creole as their first language and Spanish as their second topic largest cities topic religion religion plays a significant part of the culture of Nicaragua and has afforded special protections in the Constitution religious freedom which has been guaranteed since 1939 and religious tolerance are promoted by the government and the Constitution Nicaragua has no official religion Catholic Bishops are expected to lend their authority to important state occasions and their pronouncements on national issues are closely followed they can be called upon to mediate between contending parties at moments of political crisis in 1979 Miguel dis Coto Brockman a priest who had embraced liberation theology served in the government as foreign minister when the Sandinistas came to power the largest denomination and traditionally the religion of the majority is the Roman Catholic Church it came to Nicaragua in the 16th century with the Spanish conquest and remained until 1939 the established faith the number of practicing Roman Catholics have been declining while members of Evangelical Protestant groups and Mormons have been rapidly growing since the 1990s there is a significant LDS missionary effort in Nicaragua with two missions and 95,000 768 Mormons 1.5 4 % of the population there are also strong Anglican and Moravian communities on the Caribbean coast in what once constituted the sparsely populated Mosquito Coast colony it was under British influence for nearly three centuries Protestantism was brought to the Mosquito Coast mainly by British and German colonists in forms of anglicanism in the Moravian Church other kinds of Protestant and other Christian denominations were introduced to the rest of Nicaragua during the 19th century popular religion revolves around the saints who are perceived as intercessors but not mediators between human beings and God most localities from the capital of Managua to small rural communities under patron saints selected from the Roman Catholic calendar with annual fiestas in many communities a rich lore has grown up around the celebrations of patron saints such as Managua saint dominic santo domingo honored in august with too colorful often riotous day-long processions through the city the high point of Nicaragua’s religious calendar for the masses as neither Christmas nor Easter but let purissima a week of festivities in early December dedicated to the Immaculate Conception during which elaborate altars to the Virgin Mary are constructed in homes and workplaces the country’s clothes political ties have encouraged religious ties Buddhism has increased with a steady influx of emigration topic immigration relative to its overall population Nicaragua has never experienced any large-scale immigrant waves the number of immigrants to Nicaragua both originating from other Latin American countries and all other countries never surpassed 1% of its total population before 1995 the 2005 census showed the foreign-born population at one point two percent having risen a mere point zero six percent in ten years in the nineteenth century Nicaragua experienced modest waves of immigration from Europe in particular families from Germany Italy Spain France and Belgium immigrated to Nicaragua particularly the departments in the central and Pacific region also present as a small middle eastern Nicaraguan community of Syrians Armenians Jewish Nicaraguans and Lebanese people in Nicaragua with a population of about 30,000 there is an East Asian community mostly consisting of Chinese Taiwanese and Japanese the Chinese Nicaraguan population is estimated at around 12,000 the Chinese arrived in the late 19th century but were unsubstantiated until the 1920s topic diaspora the Civil War forced many Nicaraguans to start lives outside of their country many people emigrated during the 1990s in the first decade of the 21st century due to the lack of employment opportunities in poverty the majority of the Nicaraguan diaspora migrated to the United States in Costa Rica today one in six Nicaraguans live in these two countries the Diaspora has seen Nicaraguan settling around in smaller communities in other parts of the world particularly Western Europe small communities of Nicaraguans are found in France Germany Italy Spain Norway Sweden and the United Kingdom communities also exist in Australia and New Zealand Canada Brazil and Argentina hosts small groups of these communities in Asia Japan hosts a small Nicaraguan community due to extreme poverty at home many Nicaraguans are now living and working in neighbouring El Salvador a country that has the US dollar as currency topic healthcare although Nicaragua’s health outcomes have improved over the past few decades with the efficient utilization of resources relative to other Central American nations health care in Nicaragua still confronts challenges responding to its populations diverse health care needs the Nicaraguan government guarantees universal free health care for its citizens however limitations of current delivery models and unequal distribution of resources and medical personnel contribute to the persistent lack of quality care in more remote areas of Nicaragua especially amongst rural communities in the Central and Atlantic region to respond to the dynamic needs of localities the government has adopted a decentralized model that emphasizes community-based preventative and primary medical care topic education the adult literacy rate in 2005 was 70 8.0 percent primary education is free in Nicaragua a system of private schools exists many of which are religiously affiliated and often have more robust English programs as of 1979 the educational system was one of the poorest in Latin America one of the first acts of the newly-elected sandanista government in 1980 was an extensive and successful literacy campaign using secondary school students University students and teachers as volunteer teachers it reduced the overall illiteracy rate from 50.3% to 12.9% within only five months this was one of a number of large-scale programs which received international recognition for their gains in literacy health care education childcare unions and land reform the Sandinistas also added a leftist ideological content to the curriculum which was removed after 1990 in September 1980 UNESCO awarded Nicaragua the Soviet Union sponsored nadezhda krupskaya award for the literacy campaign the majority of higher education institutions are in Managua Nicaragua higher education system consists of 48 universities and 113 colleges and technical institutes in the areas of electronics computer systems and sciences agroforestry construction and trade related services in 2005 almost 400,000 7% of Nicaraguans held a university degree Nicaragua also has several more specialized institutions with a focus on education that will promote economic development topic gender equality Nicaragua has yet to achieve overall gender equality women in Nicaragua are more likely to face poverty than men when it comes to gender equality in Latin America Nicaragua ranks high amongst the other countries in the region when it came to global rankings regarding gender equality Nicaragua was ranked at number 12 in 2015 while in 2016 it ranked 10th and in 2017 the country ranked sixth women receive fair representation in politics due to nicaragua’s gender quota enrolment rates for women in school as much higher than that of men topic culture Nicaraguan culture has strong folklore music and religious traditions deeply influenced by European culture but also including Native American sounds and flavors Nicaraguan culture can further be defined in several distinct strands the Pacific Coast has strong folklore music and religious traditions deeply influenced by Europeans it was colonized by Spain and has a similar culture to other spanish-speaking Latin American countries the indigenous groups that historically inhabited the Pacific coast have largely been assimilated into the mestizo culture the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua was once a British protectorate English is still predominant in this region and spoken domestically along with Spanish and indigenous languages its culture is similar to that of Caribbean nations that were our British possessions such as Jamaica beliefs the Cayman Islands etc unlike on the west coast the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean coast have maintained distinct identities and some still speak their native languages as first languages topic music Nicaraguan music is a mixture of indigenous and Spanish influences musical instruments include the marimba and others common across Central America the marimba of Nicaragua is played by a sitting performer holding the instrument on his knees he is usually accompanied by a bass fiddle guitar and guitar Ella a small guitar like a mandolin this music is played at social functions as a sort of background music the marimba is made with hard wood plates placed over bamboo or metal tubes of varying lengths it is played with two or four hammers the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua is known for a lively sensual form of dance music called Paulo de Mayo which is popular throughout the country it is especially loud and celebrated during the Paulo de Mayo festival in May the Garifuna community Afra made of American is known for its popular music called Punta Nicaragua enjoys a variety of international influence in the music arena bachata merengue salsa and cumbia have gained prominence in cultural centers such as Managua Leon and Granada cumbia dancing has grown popular with the introduction of Nicaraguan artists including Gustavo Leighton on Ometepe Island and in Managua salsa dancing has become extremely popular in Managua nightclubs with various influences the form of salsa dancing varies in Nicaragua New York style and Cuban salsa salsa Casino elements have gained popularity across the country topic dance dancing Nicaragua varies depending upon the region rural areas tend to have a stronger focus on movement of the hips and turns the dance style in cities focuses primarily on more sophisticated footwork in addition to movement in turns combinations of styles from the Dominican Republic and the United States can be found throughout Nicaragua bachata dancing is popular in Nicaragua a considerable amount of bachata dancing influence comes from Nicaraguans living abroad in cities that include Miami Los Angeles and to a much lesser extent New York City tango has also surfaced recently in cultural cities and ballroom dance occasions topic literature the origin of Nicaraguan literature can arguably be traced to pre-columbian times the myths and oral literature formed the cosmogenic view of the world of the indigenous people some of these stories are still known in Nicaragua like many Latin American countries the Spanish conquerors have had the most effect on both the culture in the literature Nicaraguan literature has historically been an important source of poetry in the spanish-speaking world with internationally renowned contributors such as Ruben Dario who is regarded as the most important literary figure in Nicaragua he is called the father of modernism for leading the modern yzma literary movement at the end of the 19th century other literary figures include Carlos Martinez Rivas Pablo Antonio Quadra Alberto Quadra Mejia Manolo Quadra Pablo Alberto Quadra Arguello Orlando Quadra downing Alfredo Alegria Rosales Sergio Ramirez Mercado Ernesto Cardenal Gioconda belli clarabelle Alegria and Jose Coronel or techo among others the satirical drama el gag when se was the first literary work of post Colombian Nicaragua written in both Aztec nominal and Spanish it is regarded as one of Latin America’s most distinctive colonial era expressions and as nicaragua’s signature folkloric masterpiece a work of resistance to Spanish colonialism that combined music dance and theatre the theatrical play was written by an anonymous author in the 16th century making it one of the oldest indigenous theatrical dance works of the Western Hemisphere in 2005 it was recognized by UNESCO as a patrimony of humanity after centuries of popular performance the play was first published in a book in 1942 topic cuisine Nicaraguan cuisine as a mixture of Spanish food and dishes of a pre-columbian origin traditional cuisine changes from the Pacific to the Caribbean coast the Pacific coasts main staple revolves around local fruits in corn the caribbean coast cuisine makes use of seafood in the coconut as in many other Latin American countries maize as a staple food and is used in many of the widely consumed dishes such as the nakita mo and Indio Viejo maize is also an ingredient for drinks such as Pinarello and chicha as well as sweets and desserts in addition to corn rice and beans are even very often gallo pinto nicaragua’s national dish is made with white rice and red beans that are cooked individually and then fried together the dish has several variations including the addition of coconut milk and/or grated coconut on the caribbean coast most Nicaraguans begin their day with gallo pinto gallo pinto is most usually served with carne asada a salad fried cheese plantains are maduras many of Nicaragua’s dishes include indigenous fruits and vegetables such as ho cote mango papaya Tamarindo pipian banana avocado yuca and herbs such as cilantro oregano and achiote traditional street food snacks found in Nicaragua include cassia a thick tortilla with soft cheese and cream to hodda’s deep fried plantain chips maduras sauteed ripe plantain and fresco fresh juices such as hibiscus and tamarind commonly served in a plastic bag with a straw Nicaraguans have been known to eat guinea pigs known as Chi tapers iguanas turtle eggs armadillos and Boas are also sometimes even but because of extinction threats to these wild creatures there are efforts to curb this custom topic media foremost Nicaraguans radio and TV are the main sources of news there are more than 100 radio stations and several TV networks cable TV is available in most urban areas the Nicaraguan print media are varied in partisan representing Pro and anti-government positions publications include la prensa el Nuevo Dario confidencial hoy and Mercurio online news publications include confidencial and the Nicaragua dispatch sports baseball is the most popular sport in Nicaragua although some professional Nicaraguan baseball teams have recently folded the country still enjoys a strong tradition of american-style baseball baseball was introduced to Nicaragua during the 19th century in the Caribbean coast locals from blue fields were taught how to play baseball in 1888 by Albert Adil’s Berg a retailer from the United States baseball did not catch on in the Pacific coast until 1891 when a group of mostly college students from the United States formed la sociedad de recreo society of recreation where they played various sports baseball being the most popular Nicaragua has had its share of MLB players including shortstop Everth Cabrera and pitcher Vicente padilha but the most notable is Dennis Martinez who is the first baseball player from Nicaragua to play in Major League Baseball he became the first Latin born pitcher to throw a perfect game and the 13th in the major league history when he played with the Montreal Expos against the Dodgers at Dodger Stadium in 1991 boxing is the second most popular sport in Nicaragua the country has had world champions such as Alexis Arguello and Ricardo mayorga as well as Roman Gonzalez recently football has gained popularity the Dennis Martinez national stadium has served as a venue for both baseball and football the first-ever national football only stadium in Managua the Nicaragua national football stadium was completed in 2011 topic see also healthcare in nicaragua bibliography of nicaragua index of nicaragua related articles LGBT rights in nicaragua outline of nicaragua territorial disputes of nicaragua water supply and sanitation in nicaragua topic notes topic references this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website HTTP colon slash slash W W state.gov / r / po / a / b g and slash index.htm u.s.bilateral relations fact sheets external links visit Nicaragua teaching Central America government chief of state and cabinet members general information Nicaragua the World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency Nicaragua corruption profile from the business anti-corruption portal Nicaragua at UCB libraries govpubs Nicaragua at Croley Nicaragua profile from the BBC news wikimedia atlas of nicaragua maps from world atlas comm nicaragua portal official information of the honorary consulate of nicaragua key development forecasts for nicaragua from international future southern state of the world’s midwifery nicaragua country profile .

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