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Ireland | Wikipedia audio article


Ireland listen Irish IR e listen Ulster Scots air land realm is an island in the North Atlantic it is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North channel the Irish Sea and st. George’s Channel Ireland is the second largest island of the British Isles the third largest in Europe and the 20th largest on earth politically Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland officially named Ireland which covers five sixths of the island and Northern Ireland which is part of the United Kingdom in 2011 the population of Ireland was about six point six million ranking at the second most populous island in Europe after Great Britain just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain with several navigable rivers extending inland its lush vegetation as a product of its mild but changeable climate which is free of extremes in temperature it was covered by thick woodlands until the Middle Ages as of 2013 the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total compared with a European average of 35% there are 26 extant mammal species native to Ireland the Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus very moderate and winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe rainfall and cloud cover are abundant the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC 12,500 years ago Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD the island was Christianized from the 5th century onward following the 12th century Norman invasion England claimed sovereignty however English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th 17th century Tudor conquest which led to colonization by settlers from Britain in the 1690s a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters and was extended during the 18th century with the acts of Union in 1801 Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom a war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island creating the Irish Free State which became increasingly sovereign over the following decades and Northern Ireland which remained a part of the United Kingdom Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s this subsided following a political agreement in 1998 in 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland as part of it did the same Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures especially in the fields of literature alongside mainstream Western culture a strong indigenous culture exists as expressed through Gaelic games Irish music and the Irish language the islands culture shares many features with that of Great Britain including the English language and sports such as association football rugby horse-racing and golf topic name the names Ireland and I are derived from old Irish area this in turn comes from the Protocol tech asterisk ivory compared welche Verdun which is also the source of Latin Hibernia ivory derives from a root meaning fat prosperous pick history topic prehistoric Ireland during the last glacial period and up until about 10,000 BC most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice sea levels were lower in Ireland like Great Britain formed part of continental Europe by 16 thousand BC rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain later around 6000 BC Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10500 BC demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare it is not until about 8,000 BC however that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC some time before 4000 BC Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep large timber building and stone monuments the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain as from Fair eiders Cove coke carry where a flint knife cattle bones and a sheeps tooth were carbon dated to c43 50 BC field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland including at the save fields that has been preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day ty Raleigh an extensive field system arguably the oldest in the world consisted of small divisions separated by dry stone walls the fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC wheat and barley were the principal crops the Bronze Age defined by the use of metal began around 2500 BC with technology changing people’s everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel harnessing oxen weaving textiles brewing alcohol and skillful metalworking which produced new weapons and tools along with fine gold decoration and jewelry such as brooches and torques according to John T Koch and others Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that also included Britain Western France and Iberia and that this is where Kell languages developed this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the hallstatt culture topic emergence of Celtic Ireland during the Iron Age a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland how and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century with the migrations of the celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies today there is more than one school of thought on how this occurred the long-standing traditional view once widely accepted is that the Celtic language own script and culture were brought to Ireland by waves of invading or migrating celts from mainland Europe this theory draws on the labore Gabala Aaron a medieval Christian pseudo history of Ireland along with the presence of Celtic culture language and artifacts found in Ireland such as Celtic bronze Spears shields torques and other finely crafted Celtic associated possessions the theory holds that there were four separate Celtic invasions of Ireland the pretty knee were said to be the first followed by the Belgae from northern Gaul and Britain later lion tribes from are more iike present-day brittany were said to have invaded Ireland and Britain more or less simultaneously lastly the malaysians gales were said to have reached Ireland from either northern iberia or southern Gaul it was claimed that a second wave named the iourney belonging to the Belgae people of northern Gaul began arriving about the sixth century BC they were said to have given their name to the island a more recent theory with broad support among archaeologists is that Celtic culture and language arrived in Ireland as a result of cultural diffusion this theory proposes that the CELTA cessation of Ireland may have been the culmination of a long process of social and economic interaction between Ireland Britain and adjacent parts of continental Europe the theory was advanced in part because of lack of archaeological evidence for large-scale Celtic emigration though it is accepted that such movements are notoriously difficult to identify some proponents of this theory hold that it is likely that there was migration of smaller groups of Celts to Ireland with sufficiently regular traffic to constitute a migration stream but that this was not the fundamental cause of insular CELTA cessation historical linguists are skeptical that this method alone could account for the absorption of the Celtic language with some saying that an assumed processional view of Celtic linguistic formation as an especially hazardous at sighs genetic lineage investigation into the area of Celtic migration to Ireland has led to findings that showed no significant differences in mitochondrial DNA between Ireland and large areas of continental Europe in contrast to parts of the y-chromosome pattern when taking both into account to study drew the conclusion that modern celtic speakers in ireland could be thought of as european atlantic counts showing a shared ancestry throughout the Atlantic zone from northern iberia to western Scandinavia rather than substantially Central European in 2012 research showed that occurrence of genetic markers for the earliest Farmers was almost eliminated by beaker culture immigrants they carried what was then a new Y chromosome r1b marker believed to have originated in Iberia about 2500 BC the prevalence amongst modern Irish men for this mutation as a remarkable 84 percent the highest in the world and closely matched in other populations along the Atlantic fringes down to Spain a similar genetic replacement happened with lineages in mitochondrial DNA the implication of this evidence as a series of migrations and the arrival of the early Irish language giving some credence to the tales in lab or Gabala Aran topic late antiquity and early medieval times the earliest written records of Ireland come from classical greco-roman geographers Ptolemy and his Almagest refers to Ireland as micro Britannia Little Britain in contrast to the larger island which he called Miguel Britannia Great Britain in his later work geography Ptolemy refers to Ireland as I or Nia and to Great Britain as Albion these new names were likely to have been the local names for the islands at the time the earlier names in contrast were likely to have been coined before direct contact with local peoples was made the Romans would later refer to Ireland by this name – in its latinized form Hibernia or Scotia Ptolemy records sixteen nations inhabiting every part of Ireland in 100 AD the relationship between the Roman Empire and the kingdoms of ancient Ireland is unclear however a number of finds of Roman coins have been made for example at the Iron Age settlement of free stone hill near Goran and Newgrange Ireland continued as a patchwork of rival kingdoms but beginning in the seventh century a concept of national kingship gradually became articulated through the concept of a high king of ireland medieval Irish literature portrays an almost unbroken sequence of high kings stretching back thousands of years but modern historians believe the scheme was constructed in the 8th century to justify the status of powerful political groupings by projecting the origins of their rule into the remote past all of the Irish kingdoms had their own kings but were nominally subject to the high king the high king was drawn from the ranks of the provincial kings and ruled also the royal kingdom of meat with a ceremonial capital at the Hill of Tara the concept didn’t become a political reality until the Viking Age and even then was not a consistent one Ireland did have a culturally unifying rule of law the early written judicial system the Brean laws administered by a professional class of jurists known as the Breen’s the chronicle of ireland records that in 431 bishop Pelagius arrived in ireland on a mission from pope celestine the first to minister to the irish already believing in christ the same chronicle records that st.Patrick Ireland’s best-known patron saint arrived the following year there is continued debate over the missions of play and Patrick but the consensus is that they both took place and that the older druid tradition collapsed in the face of the new religion Irish Christian scholars excelled in the study of Latin and Greek learning in Christian theology in the monastic culture that followed the Christianization of Ireland Latin and Greek learning was preserved in Ireland during the early Middle Ages in contrast to elsewhere in Europe where the dark ages followed the fall of the Western Roman Empire the arts of manuscript illumination metalworking and sculpture flourished and produced treasures such as the Book of Kells ornate jewelry and the many carved stone crosses that still dot the island today a mission founded in 563 on Iona by the Irish monk st. Columba began a tradition of Irish missionary work that spread Celtic Christianity and learning to Scotland England and the Frankish Empire on continental Europe after the fall of Rome these missions continued until the late Middle Ages establishing monasteries and centres of learning producing scholars such as said Julius SCOTUS and johannes area Jena and exerting much influence in Europe from the ninth century waves of Viking raiders plundered Irish monasteries and towns these raids added to a pattern of raiding an endemic warfare that was already deep-seated in Ireland the Vikings also were involved in establishing most of the major coastal settlements in Ireland Dublin Limerick cork Wexford Waterford as well as other smaller settlements topic Norman and English invasions on the 1st of May 11 69 an expedition of Canberra Norman Knights with an army of about 600 landed at Bono strand in present-day County Wexford it was led by Richard de Clare called Strongbow due to his prowess as an archer the invasion which coincided with a period of renewed Mormon expansion was at the invitation of Dermot McNamara the king of Leinster in 1166 Mac Morrow had fled to Anjou France following a war involving tigrin and/or Rourke a brief nee and sought the assistance of the Angevin King Henry ii in recapturing his kingdom in 1171 Henry arrived in Ireland in order to review the general progress of the expedition he wanted to re-examined his control Henry successfully REE imposed his authority over Strongbow and the Canberra Norman war lords and persuaded many of the Irish kings to accept him as their overlord an arrangement confirmed in the 1175 Treaty of Windsor the invasion was legitimized by the provisions of the papal bull audibility issued by Adrian the fourth in 1155 the bull encouraged Henry to take control in Ireland in order to oversee the financial and administrative reorganization of the Irish Church and its integration into the Roman Church system some restructuring had already begun at the ecclesiastical level following the Synod of Kells in 1152 there has been significant controversy regarding the authenticity of Lotte ability and there is no general agreement as to whether the bull was genuine or a forgery in 1170 to the new Pope Alexander the third further encouraged Henry to advance the integration of the Irish Church with Rome Henry was authorized to impose a tithe of one penny per hearth as an annual contribution this church levy called Peters Pence is extant in Ireland as a voluntary donation in turn Henry accepted the title of Lord of Ireland which henry conferred on his younger son John Lackland in 1185 this defined the Irish state as the lordship of Ireland when Henry’s successor died unexpectedly in 1199 John inherited the crown of England and retained the lordship of Ireland over the century that followed norman feudal law gradually replay the Gaelic Brienne lost so that by the late 13th century the Norman Irish had established a feudal system throughout much of Ireland Norman settlements were characterized by the establishment of Baroness manors towns and the seeds of the modern county system a version of the Magna Carta the Great Charter of Ireland substituting Dublin for London and the Irish Church for the English church at the time the Catholic Church was published in 1216 and the Parliament of Ireland was founded in 1297 from the mid 14th century after the black death norman settlements in ireland went into a period of decline the norman rulers and the Gaelic Irish elites intermarried and the areas under Norman rule became gala sized in some parts a hybrid hibernal norman culture emerged in response the irish parliament passed the statutes of Kilkenny in 1367 these were a set of laws designed to prevent the assimilation of the Normans into Irish society by requiring English subjects in Ireland to speak English follow English customs and abide by English law by the end of the 15th century central English authority in Ireland had all but disappeared in a renewed Irish culture and language albeit with Norman influences was dominant again English crown control remained relatively and shaken in an amorphous foothold around Dublin known as the pale and under the provisions of pointings law of 1494 the Irish parliamentary legislation was subject to the approval of the English Parliament topic the kingdom of Ireland the title of King of Ireland was recreated in 1542 by Henry the eighth then King of England of the Tudor dynasty English rule was reinforced and expanded in Ireland during the latter part of the 16th century leading to the Tudor conquest of Ireland a near complete conquest was achieved by the turn of the 17th century following the nine years war and the flight of the Earl’s this control was consolidated during the wars and conflicts of the 17th century including the English and Scottish colonization in the plantations of Ireland the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the Williamite war Irish losses during the Wars of the three kingdoms which in Ireland included the Irish Confederacy and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland are estimated to include 20,000 battlefield casualties 200,000 civilians are estimated to have died as a result of a combination of war related famine displacement guerrilla activity and pestilence over the duration of the war a further 50,000 were sent into indentured servitude in the West Indies physician General William petty estimated that 500 4,000 Catholic Irish and 112 thousand Protestant settlers died and 100,000 people were transported as a result of the war if a pre-war population of 1.5 million is assumed this would mean that the population was reduced by almost half the religious struggles of the 17th century left a deep sectarian division in Ireland religious allegiance now determined the perception in-law of loyalty to the Irish King and Parliament after the passing of the test Act 1670 – and the victory of the forces of the Dual Monarchy of William and Mary over the Jacobites Roman Catholics and non conforming Protestant dissenters were barred from sitting as members in the Irish parliament under the emerging penal laws Irish Roman Catholics and dissenters were increasingly deprived of various and sundry civil rights even to the ownership of hereditary property additional regressive punitive legislation followed in 1703 1709 and 1728 this completed a comprehensive systemic effort to materially disadvantaged Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters while enriching a new ruling class of Anglican conformists the new Anglo Irish ruling class became known as the Protestant ascendancy the great frost struck Ireland and the rest of Europe between December 17 39 and September 17 41 after a decade of relatively mild winters the winters destroyed stored crops of potatoes and other staples in the poor summers severely damaged harvests this resulted in the famine of 1740 an estimated 250,000 people about one in eight of the population died from the ensuing pestilence and disease the Irish government halted export of corn and kept the army in quarters but did little more local gentry and charitable organisations provided relief but could do little to prevent the ensuing mortality in the aftermath of the famine an increase in industrial production and a surgeon trade brought a succession of construction booms the population soared in the latter part of this century and the architectural legacy of George and Ireland was built in 1782 pointings law was repealed giving Ireland legislative independence from Great Britain for the first time since 1495 the British government however still retained the right to nominate the government of Ireland without the consent of the Irish parliament topic union with Great Britain in 1798 members of the Protestant dissenters mainly presbyterian made common cause with Roman Catholics in a Republican rebellion inspired and led by the Society of United Irishmen with the aim of creating an independent Ireland despite assistance from France the rebellion was put down by British and Irish government and yeoman re4 PSA’s in 1800 the British and Irish Parliament’s both passed acts of Union that with effect from the 1st of January 1801 merged the kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain to create a United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland the passage of the act in the Irish parliament was ultimately achieved with substantial majorities having failed on the first attempt in 1799 according to contemporary documents and historical analysis this was achieved through a considerable degree of bribery with funding provided by the British Secret Service office and the awarding of peerages places and honors to secure votes thus the Parliament in Ireland was abolished and replaced by a united Parliament at Westminster in London the resistance remained as evidenced by Robert Emmett’s failed Irish rebellion of 1803 aside from the development of the linen industry Ireland was largely passed over by the Industrial Revolution partly because it lacked coal and iron resources and partly because of the impact of the sudden union with the structurally superior economy of England which saw Ireland as a source of agricultural produce and capital the great famine of 1845 to 1851 devastated Ireland as in those years Ireland’s population fell by 1/3 more than 1 million people died from starvation and disease while an additional 2 million people emigrated mostly to the United States and Canada by the end of the decade half of all immigration to the United States was from Ireland the period of civil unrest that followed until the end of the 19th century is referred to as the land war mass emigration became deeply entrenched and the population continued to decline until the mid 20th century immediately prior to the famine the population was recorded as 8.2 million by the 1841 census the population has never returned to this level since the population continued to fall until 1960 and it was not until the 2006 census that the last County of Ireland County Leitrim to record a rise in population since 1841 did sell the 19th and early 20th centuries saw the rise of modern Irish nationalism primarily among the Roman Catholic population the preeminent Irish political figure after the union was Daniel O’Connell he was elected as Member of Parliament for Ennis in a surprised result and despite being unable to take his seat as a Roman Catholic O’Connell spearheaded a vigorous campaign that was taken up by the prime minister the Irish born soldier and statesman the Duke of Wellington steering the Catholic relief bill through Parliament aided by future Prime Minister Robert Peel Wellington prevailed upon a reluctant George the 4th to sign the bill and proclaim it into law George’s father had opposed the plan of the earlier Prime Minister Pitt the Younger to introduce such a bill following the union of 1801 fearing Catholic emancipation to be in conflict with the Act of Settlement 1701 Daniel O’Connell led a subsequent campaign for the repeal of the Act of Union which failed later in the century Charles Stewart Parnell and others campaigned for autonomy within the Union or Home Rule unionists especially those located in Ulster were strongly opposed to Home Rule which they thought would be dominated by Catholic interests after several attempts to pass a Home Rule bill through Parliament it looked certain that one would finally pass in 1914 to prevent this from happening the Ulster Volunteers were formed in 1913 under the leadership of Edward Carson their formation was followed in 1914 by the establishment of the Irish Volunteers whose aim was to ensure that the Home Rule bill was passed the Act was passed but with the temporary exclusion of the six counties of Ulster that would become Northern Ireland before it could be implemented however the act was suspended for the duration of the First World War the Irish Volunteers split into two groups the majority approximately 175,000 in number under John Redman took the name national volunteers and supported Irish involvement in the war a minority approximately 13,000 retained the Irish volunteer name and opposed Ireland’s involvement in the war the Easter Rising of 1916 was carried out by the latter group together with a smaller socialist militia the Irish citizen army the British response executing 15 leaders of the rising over a period of 10 days and imprisoning or interning more than a thousand people turned the mood of the country in favor of the rebels support for Irish republicanism increased further due to the ongoing war in Europe as well as the Conscription crisis of 1918 the pro-independence Republican Party shin fine received overwhelming endorsement in the general election of 1918 and in 1919 proclaimed an Irish Republic setting up its own Parliament dáil éireann and government simultaneously the volunteers which became known as the Irish Republican Army IRA launched a three-year guerrilla war which ended in a truce in July 19-21 although violence continued until June 19-22 mostly in Northern Ireland topic partition in December 1921 the anglo-irish treaty was concluded between the British government and representatives of the second dáil it gave Ireland complete independence in its Home Affairs and practical independence for foreign policy but an opt-out clause allowed Northern Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom which it immediately exercised as expected additionally members of the Free State Parliament were required to swear an oath of allegiance to the Constitution of the Irish Free State and make a statement of faithfulness to the king disagreements over these provisions led to a split in the nationalist movement and a subsequent Irish civil war between the new government of the Irish Free State and those opposed to the treaty led by a Eamon de Valera the civil war officially ended in May 1923 when de Valera issued a cease fire order topic independence during its first decade the newly formed Irish free state was governed by the victors of the Civil War when de Valera achieved power he took advantage of the statute of Westminster and political circumstances to build upon inroads to greater sovereignty made by the previous government the oath was abolished and in 1937 a new constitution was adopted this completed a process of gradual separation from the British Empire that governments had pursued since independence however it was not until 1949 that the state was declared officially to be the Republic of Ireland the state was neutral during World War two but offered clandestine assistance to the Allies particularly in the potential defense of Northern Ireland despite their country’s neutrality approximately 50,000 volunteers from independent Ireland joined the British forces during the war for being awarded Victoria Crosses the Abwehr was also active in Ireland German intelligence operations effectively ended in September 1941 when police made arrests on the basis of surveillance carried out on the key diplomatic legations in Dublin including that of the United States to the authorities counterintelligence was a fundamental line of defence with a regular army of only slightly over 7,000 men at the start of the war and with limited supplies of modern weapons the state would have had great difficulty in defending itself from invasion from either side in the conflict large-scale emigration marked most of the post-world War two period particularly during the 1950s and 1980s but beginning in 1987 the economy improved and the 1990s saw the beginning of substantial economic growth this period of growth became known as the Celtic Tiger the Republic’s real GDP grew by an average of nine point six percent per annum between 1995 and 1999 in which year the Republic joined the euro in 2000 it was the sixth richest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita social changes also occurred in this time most markedly with the decline in authority of the Catholic Church the financial crisis that began in 2008 dramatically ended this period of boom GDP fell by 3 percent in 2008 and by 7.1% in 2009 the worst year since records began although earnings by foreign owned businesses continued to grow the state has since experienced deep recession with unemployment which doubled during 2009 remaining above 14% in 2012 topic Northern Ireland Northern Ireland resulted from the division of the United Kingdom by the government of Ireland act 1920 and until 1972 was a self-governing jurisdiction within the United Kingdom with its own parliament and Prime Minister Northern Ireland as part of the United Kingdom was not neutral during the Second World War and Belfast suffered four bombing raids in 1941 conscription was not extended to Northern Ireland and roughly an equal number volunteered from Northern Ireland has volunteered from the south although Northern Ireland was largely spared the strife of the Civil War in decades that followed partition there were sporadic episodes of inter-communal violence nationalists mainly Roman Catholic wanted to unite Ireland as an independent republic whereas unionists mainly Protestant wanted Northern Ireland to remain in the United Kingdom the Protestant and Catholic communities in Northern Ireland voted largely along sectarian lines meaning that the government of Northern Ireland elected by first-past-the-post from 1929 was controlled by the Ulster Unionist Party over time the minority Catholic community felt increasingly alienated with further disaffection fueled by practices such as gerrymandering and discrimination in housing and employment in the late 1960s nationalist grievances were aired publicly in mass civil rights protests which were often confronted by loyalists counter protests the government’s reaction to confrontations was seemed to be one sided and heavy-handed in favor of unionists law and order broke down as unrest in inter-communal violence increased the Northern Ireland government requested the British army to aid the police and protect the Irish nationalist population in 1969 the paramilitary Provisional IRA which favoured the creation of a united Ireland emerged from a split in the Irish Republican Army and began a campaign against what it called the British occupation of the six counties other groups on both the unionist side and the nationalist side participated in violence and a period known as the troubles began over 3600 deaths resulted over the subsequent three decades of conflict owing to the civil unrest during the Troubles the British government suspended Home Rule in 1972 and imposed direct rule there were several unsuccessful attempts to end the troubles politically such as the Sunningdale agreement of 1973 in 1998 following a ceasefire by the Provisional IRA and multi-party talks the Good Friday Agreement was concluded as a treaty between the British and Irish governments and Xing the text agreed in the multi-party talks the substance of the agreement formerly referred to as the Belfast agreement was later endorsed by referendums in both parts of Ireland the agreement restored self-government to Northern Ireland on the basis of power sharing in a Regional Executive drawn from the major parties in a new Northern Ireland Assembly with entrenched protections for the two main communities the executive is jointly headed by a First Minister and Deputy First Minister drawn from the unionist and nationalist parties violence had decreased greatly after the Provisional IRA and loyalist cease fires in 1994 and in 2005 the Provisional IRA announced the end of its armed campaign and an independent commission supervised dits disarmament and that of other nationalist and unionist paramilitary organisations the assembly and power sharing executive were suspended several times but were restored again in 2007 in that year the British government officially ended its military support of the police in Northern Ireland operation banner and began withdrawing troops on the 27th of June 2012 Northern Ireland’s Deputy First Minister and former IRA commander Martin McGuinness shook hands with queen elizabeth ii in belfast symbolizing reconciliation between the two sides topic politics politically the island is divided between the Republic of Ireland an independent state and Northern Ireland a constituent country of the United Kingdom they share an open border and both are part of the common travel area both the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom are members of the European Union having both acceded to its precursor entity the European Economic Community AEC in 1973 and as a consequence there is free movement of people goods services and capital across the border topic Republic of Ireland the Republic of Ireland as a parliamentary democracy based on the British model with a written constitution and a popularly elected president who has mostly ceremonial powers the government is headed by a prime minister the Taoiseach who is appointed by the President on the nomination of the lower house of parliament the dáil members of the government are chosen from both the dáil in the upper house of parliament the scene at its capital is Dublin the Republic today ranks amongst the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita and in 2015 was ranked the sixth most developed nation in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index a period of rapid economic expansion from 1995 onwards became known as the Celtic Tiger period was brought to an end in 2008 with an unprecedented financial crisis and an economic depression in 2009 topic Northern Ireland Northern Ireland as a part of the United Kingdom with a local executive and assembly which exercise devolved powers the executive is jointly headed by the First and Deputy First Minister with the ministries being allocated in proportion with each party’s representation in the assembly its capital as Belfast ultimately political power is held by the UK government from which Northern Ireland has gone through intermittent periods of direct rule during which devolved powers have been suspended Northern Ireland elects 18 of the UK House of Commons 650 MPs the Northern Ireland secretary is a cabinet level post in the British government along with England and Wales in Scotland Northern Ireland forms one of the three separate legal jurisdictions of the UK all of which share the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom as their court of final appeal topic all island institutions as part of the Good Friday Agreement the British and Irish governments agreed on the creation of all Island institutions and areas of cooperation the north-south Ministerial Council as an institution through which ministers from the government of Ireland and the Northern Ireland Executive agree all Island policies at least six of these policy areas must have been associated all Island implementation bodies and at least six others must be implemented separately in each jurisdiction the implementation bodies our waterways Ireland the food safety promotion board inter trade Ireland the special European Union programs body the north-south language body and the Foyle Carlingford and Irish lights Commission the British Irish intergovernmental conference provides for cooperation between the government of Ireland and the government of the United Kingdom on all matter of mutual interest especially Northern Ireland in light of the republic’s particular interest in the governance of Northern Ireland regular and frequent meetings co-chaired by the Roi Minister for Foreign Affairs and the UK Secretary of State for Northern Ireland dealing with non devolved matters to do with Northern Ireland and non devolved All Ireland issues are required to take place under the establishing treaty the north-south inter-parliamentary association is a joint parliamentary forum for the island of ireland it has no formal powers but operates as a forum for discussing matters of common concern between the respective legislatures topic economy despite the two jurisdictions using two distinct currencies the euro and pound sterling a growing amount of commercial activity is carried out on an All Ireland basis this has been facilitated by the two jurisdictions shared membership of the European Union and there have been calls from members of the business community and policy makers for the creation of an All Ireland economy to take advantage of economies of scale and boost competitiveness there are two multi city regions on the island of Ireland Dublin Belfast corridor three point three meters Cork Limerick Galway corridor one and below as a comparison of the regional GDP on the island of Ireland the BMW region of the Republic of Ireland consisting of conduct counties Laos awfully westmeath Longford Donegal Monaghan Kevin laughs the S eery j’en of the republic of ireland consisting of Muenster counties dublin Wicklow Meath cold-air kilkenny carlo Wexford topic tourism there are three world heritage sites on the island the bruna bowen skellig michael and the giant’s causway a number of other places are on the tentative list for example the burren the seed fields and Mount Stewart some of the most visited sites in Ireland include bunratty castle the rock of cashel The Cliffs of Moher holycross abbey and Blarney Castle historically important monastic sites include glendalough and clonmacnoise which are maintained as national monuments in the Republic of Ireland Dublin as the most heavily touristed region and home to several of the most popular attractions such as the Guinness Storehouse and Book of Kells the west and south west which includes the lakes of Killarney and the dingle peninsula in county kerry in Connemara and the aran islands in county galway are also popular tourist destinations a chill island lies off the coast of county mayo and as Ireland’s largest island it is a popular tourist destination for surfing and contains five blue flag beaches and Croagh on one of the world’s highest sea cliffs stately homes built during the 17th 18th and 19th centuries in Palladian neoclassical and neo gothic styles such as Castle Ward Castle townhouse ban treehouse Glen beach Castle are also of interest to tourists some have been converted into hotels such as Ashford Castle castle leslie and Dromoland castle world heritage sites topic energy Ireland has an ancient industry based on peat known locally as turf as a source of energy for home fires a form of biomass energy this source of heat is still widely used in rural areas however due to the ecological importance of peat lands in storing carbon and their rarity the EU is attempting to protect this habitat by finding Ireland if they are dug up in cities heat is generally supplied by heating oil although some urban suppliers distribute sods of turf as smokeless fuel an area in which the island operates as a single market as electricity for much of their existence electricity networks in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland were entirely separate both networks were designed and construct independently post partition however as a result of changes over recent years they are now connected with three inter links and also connected through Great Britain to mainland Europe the situation in Northern Ireland is complicated by the issue of private companies not supplying Northern Ireland electricity nee with enough power in the republic of ireland the ESB has failed to modernize its power stations and the availability of power plants has recently averaged only 66 percent one of the worst such rates in Western Europe eirGrid is building a HVDC transmission line between Ireland and Great Britain with a capacity of 500 megawatts about 10% of Ireland’s peak demand as with electricity the natural gas distribution network is also now all island with a pipeline Lincoln Gorman Stone County Meath and Bali Clare County Antrim most of Ireland’s gas comes through inter connectors between twin home in Scotland and Bali lumford County Antrim and Lau Chandi County Dublin a decreasing supply is coming from the Kinsale gas field off the County Cork coast in the Corrib gas field off the coast of County Mayo has yet to come online the county mayo field is facing some localised opposition over a controversial decision to refine the gas onshore the Republic has a strong commitment to renewable energy and ranks as one of the top 10 markets for clean tech investment in the 2014 global green economy index research and development and renewable energy such as wind power has increased since 2004 large wind farms have been constructed in Cork Donegal mayo and Antrim the construction of wind farms has in some cases been delayed by opposition from local communities some of whom consider the wind turbines to be unsightly the Republic is hindered by an aging network that was not designed to handle the varying availability of power that comes from wind farms the es B’s Turlough Hill facility as the only power storage facility in the state topic geography Ireland is located in the northwest of Europe between latitudes 51 degrees and 56 degrees north and longitudes 11° and 5 degrees west it is separated from Great Britain by the Irish Sea in the North channel which has a width of 23 kilometers 14 miles at its narrowest point to the west as the northern Atlantic Ocean and to the south as the Celtic Sea which lies between Ireland and Brittany in France Ireland has a total area of 80 4421 square kilometers 30 2595 square miles of which the Republic of Ireland occupies 83% Ireland and Great Britain together with many nearby smaller islands are known collectively as the British Isles as the term British Isles is controversial in relation to Ireland the alternate term Britain and Ireland is often used as a neutral term for the islands a ring of coastal mountains surround low plains at the centre of the island the highest of these is carrauntoohil Irish kourin to assail in County Kerry which rises to 1038 metres 3406 feet above sea level the most arable land lies in the province of line ster western areas can be mountainous and rocky with green panoramic vistas the river shannon the islands longest river at 386 kilometres 240 miles long rises in county cavan in the north-west and flows 113 kilometers 70 miles to limerick city in the midwest the island consists of varied geological provinces in the West around County Galway in County Donegal is a medium to high grade metamorphic and igneous complex of called–oh Knight affinity similar to the Scottish Highlands across southeast Ulster and extending south west to Longford and south to Navin as a province of ordovician and silurian rocks with similarities to the southern uplands province of Scotland further south along the County Wexford coastline is an area of granite intrusive zin to more ordovician and silurian rocks like that found in Wales in the southwest around Bantry Bay and the mountains of McGillicuddy’s reaks is an area of substantially deformed but only lightly metamorphosed Devonian age rocks this partial ring of hard rock geology is covered by a blanket of Carboniferous limestone over the center of the country giving rise to a comparatively fertile and lush landscape the west coast district of the burn around Lisdoonvarna has well-developed karst features significant stratiform lead zinc mineralization as found in the lime stones around silver mines in China hydrocarbon exploration is ongoing following the first major find at the Kinsale head gas field off Cork in the mid 1970s in 1999 economically significant finds of natural gas were made in the Corrib gas field off the county mayo coast this has increased activity off the west coast in parallel with the west of Shetland step-out development from the North Sea hydrocarbon province in 2000 the halvah coil field was discovered which was estimated to contain over 28 million barrels 4,500,000 cubic metres of oil landscapes topic climate the islands lush vegetation a product of its mild climate and frequent rainfall earns it the sobriquet the Emerald Isle overall Ireland has a mild but changeable oceanic climate with few extremes the climate is typically insular and is temperate avoiding the extremes in temperature of many other areas in the world at similar latitudes this is a result of the moderating moist winds which ordinarily prevail from the south western Atlantic precipitation falls throughout the year but is light overall particularly in the East the West tends to be wetter on average and prone to Atlantic storms especially in the late autumn and winter months these occasionally bring destructive winds and higher total rainfall to these areas as well as sometimes snow in hail the regions of north county galway in East County Mayo have the highest incidence of recorded lightning annually for the island with lightning occurring approximately five to ten days per year in these areas Munster in the South records the least snow whereas Ulster in the north records the most inland areas are warmer in summer and colder in winter usually around 40 days of the year are below freezing zero degrees Celsius 32 degrees Fahrenheit at inland weather stations compared to 10 days at coastal stations Ireland is sometimes affected by heat waves most recently in 1995 2003 2006 2013 and 2018 in common with the rest of Europe Ireland experienced unusually cold weather during the winter of 2010-11 temperatures fell as low as minus 17 point 2 degrees Celsius 1 degree fahrenheit in county mayo on the 20th of December and up to a meter three feet of snow fell in mountainous areas topic flora and fauna because Ireland became isolated from mainland Europe by rising sea levels before the last ice age had completely finished it has fewer land animal and plant species than Great Britain which separated later or mainland Europe there are 55 mammal species in Ireland and of them only 26 land mammal species are considered native to Ireland some species such as the red fox Hedgehog and Badger are very common whereas others like the Irish hair red deer and pine marten or lesser aquatic wildlife such as species of sea turtle shark seal whale and dolphin are common off the coast about 400 species of birds have been recorded in Ireland many of these are migratory including the Barn Swallow several different habitat types are found in Ireland including farmland open woodland temperate broadleaf and mixed forests conifer plantations peat bogs and a variety of coastal habitats however agriculture drives current land use patterns in Ireland limiting natural habitats preserves particularly for larger wild mammals with greater territorial needs with no large apex predators in Ireland other than humans and dogs such populations of animals as semi wild deer that cannot be controlled by smaller predators such as the Fox are controlled by annual culling there are no snakes in Ireland and only one species of reptile the common lizard is native to the island extinct species include the Irish out the grey doc brown bear in the wolf some previously extinct birds such as the golden eagle been reintroduced in about the year 2000 after decades of extirpation until medieval times Ireland was heavily forested with oak pine and birch forests today cover about twelve point six percent of Ireland of which 4450 square kilometres or 1 million acres is owned by Coyle the Republic’s Forestry Service as of 2012 the Republic is one of the least forested countries in Europe much of the land is now covered with pasture and there are many species of wildflower gorse EULEX euro pious a wild first is commonly found growing in the uplands and ferns are plentiful in the more moist regions especially in the western parts it is home to 100 of plant species some of them unique to the island and has been invaded by some grasses such as spartina Anglican the algal and seaweed flora is that of the cold temperate variety the total number of species as 574 and is distributed as follows 264 roto Fida red algae 152 fiafia CI brown algae including kelps 114 chloro petha green algae 31 Sian fi de blue-green algae rarer species include Ivano amar Jennifer J a God Masuda and Geary schmidt Z ‘his khaki and a Maggs and Geary gal Adela Cal sekolah mags and gear Eagle idiom maxi a Rico and Geary Hal Amenia latifolia pl crew on an HM crew on X cutscene the island has been invaded by some algae some of which are now well established for example asparagus asar Maura Harvey which originated in Australia and was first recorded by M de Valera in 1939 Culp Amenia peregrina Sauvage au which is now locally abundant and first recorded in the 1930s Sargassum utakome Yendo vens holt now well established in a number of localities on the south west and north east coasts co diem fragile SSP fragile formerly reported as SSP taman to–some now well established Co diem fragile SSP Atlanta come has been established to be native although for many years it was regarded as an alien species because of its mild climate many species including subtropical species such as palm trees are grown in Ireland phyto geographically Ireland belongs to the Atlantic European province of the circum boreal region within the boreal kingdom the island itself can be subdivided into two ecoregions the Celtic broadleaf forests and North Atlantic moist mixed forests topic impact of Agriculture the long history of agricultural production coupled with modern intensive agricultural methods such as pesticide and fertilizer use and runoff from contaminants into streams rivers and lakes impact the natural freshwater ecosystems and have placed pressure on biodiversity in Ireland a land of green fields for crop cultivation and cattle rearing limits the space available for the establishment of native wild species hedgerows however traditionally used for maintaining and demarcating boundaries act as a refuge for native wild flora this ecosystem stretches across the countryside and acts as a network of connections to preserve remnants of the ecosystem that once covered the island subsidies under the Common Agricultural Policy which supported agricultural practices that preserved hedgerow environments are undergoing reforms the Common Agricultural Policy had in the past subsidized potentially destructive agricultural practices for example by emphasizing production without placing limits on indiscriminate use of fertilisers and pesticides but reforms have gradually decoupled subsidies from production levels and introduced environmental and other requirements forest covers about twelve point six percent of the country most of it designated for commercial production forested areas typically consist of monoculture plantations of non-native species which may result in habitats that are not suitable for supporting native species of invertebrates remnants of native forests can be found scattered around the island in particular in the Killarney National Park natural areas require fencing to prevent over grazing by deer and sheep that roam over uncultivated areas grazing in this manner is one of the main factors preventing the natural regeneration of forests across many regions of the country point three two point two percent of all of Ireland’s greenhouse gas emissions are due to agriculture topic demographics people have lived in Ireland for over 9,000 years the different eras are termed Mesolithic Neolithic Bronze Age an Iron Age early historical and genealogical records note the existence of major groups such as the cruddud core crew lloyd dál Riata Dyron Dara tine Donna Erin Reagan you laid slightly later major groups included the kanata C Anita yoga nocte smaller groups included the IVA quanta see a ducati khal rhae see ridge con McNutt dart ray dei see i’ll Furby o LG fort Wafaa galanga gammon rach mayor team must Greg Partridge SOG hain you I’d me Bui main Bui liya Thane many survived into late medieval times others vanished as they became politically unimportant over the past 1200 years Vikings Normans Welsh Fleming’s scots english africans Eastern Europeans and South Americans have all added to the population and have had significant influences on Irish culture Ireland’s largest religious group is Christianity the largest denomination is Roman Catholicism representing over 73 percent for the island and about 87 percent of the Republic of Ireland most of the rest of the population adhere to one of the various Protestant denominations about 48% of Northern Ireland the largest is the Anglican Church of Ireland the Muslim community is growing in Ireland mostly through increased immigration with a 50% increase in the Republic between the 2006 and 2011 census the island has a small Jewish community about 4% of the republic’s population and about 14% of the Northern Ireland population described themselves as of no religion in a 2010 survey conducted on behalf of the Irish times 32 percent of respondents said they went to a religious service more than once a week the population of Ireland rose rapidly from the 16th century until the mid 19th century interrupted briefly by the famine of 1740 241 which killed roughly two-fifths of the island’s population the population rebounded and multiplied over the next century but another devastating famine in the 1840s caused 1 million deaths and forced over 1 million more to emigrate in its immediate wake over the following century the population was reduced by over half at a time when the general trend in European countries was for populations to rise by an average of 3 fold topic divisions and settlements traditionally Ireland is subdivided into four provinces conduct West line stir East Munster south and Ulster north in a system that developed between the 13th and 17th centuries Ireland has 32 traditional counties 26 of these counties are in the Republic of Ireland and six are in Northern Ireland the six counties that constitute Northern Ireland are all in the province of Ulster which has nine counties in total as such Ulster is often used as a synonym for Northern Ireland although the two are not coterminous in the Republic of Ireland counties form the basis of the system of local government counties Dublin Cork Limerick Galway Waterford and Tipperary have been broken up into smaller administrative areas however they are still treated as counties for cultural and some official purposes for example postal addresses and by the Ordnance Survey Ireland counties in Northern Ireland are no longer used for local governmental purposes but as in the Republic their traditional boundaries are still used for informal purposes such as sports leagues and in cultural or tourism contexts city status in Ireland is decided by legislative a Royal Charter Dublin with over 1 million residents in the Greater Dublin area is the largest city on the island Belfast with 579 thousand seven hundred twenty six residents is the largest city in Northern Ireland city status does not directly equate with population size for example our ma with 14,000 590 as the seat of the Church of Ireland and the roman catholic primate of All Ireland and was regretted City status by queen elizabeth ii in 1994 having lost that status in local government reforms of 1840 in the republic of ireland Kilkenny seat of the butler dynasty while no longer a city for administrative purposes since the 2001 local government act is entitled by law to continue to use the description topic migration the population of Ireland collapsed dramatically during the second half of the 19th century a population of over 8 million in 1841 was reduced to slightly more than 4 million by 1921 in part the fall in population was due to death from the great famine of 1845 to 1852 which took about 1 million lives however by far the greater cause of population declined was the dire economic state of the country which led to an entrenched culture of emigration lasting until the 21st century emigration from Ireland in the 19th century contributed to the populations of England the United States Canada and Australia where a large Irish diaspora lives as of 2006 4.3 million Canadians or 14% of the population are of Irish descent as of 2013 a total of thirty four point five million Americans claim Irish ancestry Irish Americans today are predominantly Protestant with a Catholic minority the Protestants ancestors arrived primarily in the colonial era while Catholics are primarily descended from immigrants of the 19th century Irish leaders have been prominent in the Catholic Church in the United States for over 150 years the Irish have been leaders in the Presbyterian and Methodist traditions as well surveys in the 1990s show that of Americans who identify themselves as Irish 51% said they were Protestant and 36% identified as Catholic in the south protestants account for 73 percent of those claiming Irish origins while Catholics account for 19 percent in the north 45% of those claiming Irish origin or Catholic while 39% are Protestant many African Americans and Native Americans claim Irish Protestant or scots-irish ancestry with growing prosperity since the last decade of the 20th century Ireland became a destination for immigrants since the European Union expanded to include Poland in 2004 Polish people have made up the largest number of immigrants over 150,000 from Central Europe there has also been significant emigration from Lithuania the Czech Republic in Latvia the Republic of Ireland in particular has seen large-scale immigration with 420,000 foreign nationals as of 2006 about 10% of the population a quarter of births 24% in 2009 were two mothers born outside Ireland Chinese and Nigerians along with people from other African countries have accounted for a large proportion of the non-european Union migrants to Ireland up to 50,000 Eastern and Central European migrant workers left Ireland in response to the Irish financial crisis pick languages the two official languages of the Republic of Ireland are Irish in English each language has produced a noteworthy literature Irish though now only the language of a minority was the vernacular of the Irish people for over 2,000 years and was possibly introduced during the Iron Age it began to be written down after Christianization in the fifth century and spread to Scotland and the Isle of Man where it evolved into the Scottish Gaelic and Manx languages respectively the Irish language has a vast treasury of written texts from many centuries and is divided by linguists into old Irish from the 6th to 10th century middle Irish from the 10th to 13th century early modern Irish until the 17th century and the modern Irish spoken today it remained the dominant language of Ireland for most of those periods having influences from Latin Old Norse French and English it declined under British rule but remained the majority tongue until the early 19th century and since then has been a minority language the Gaelic revival of the early 20th century has had a long-term influence there is now an extensive network of urban Irish speakers gaeilge ori in both the republic in Northern Ireland especially in Dublin and Belfast they represent an expanding demographic with their own schools called gales coil IANA and their own social media it has been argued that they tend to be more highly educated than monolingual English speakers with better employment prospects and higher social status recent research suggests that urban Irish is developing in a direction of its own both in pronunciation and grammar Irish has also taught in mainstream english-speaking schools as a compulsory subject but has been criticized for its ineffectiveness traditional rural Irish speaking areas known collectively as the gelt act are in linguistic decline the main Gale tact areas are in the West Southwest and northwest they are to be found in Donegal Mayo Galway and Kerry with smaller gaeltachta areas near dung Irvan in Waterford navin in me English in Ireland was first introduced during the Norman invasion it was spoken by a few peasants and merchants brought over from England and was largely replaced by Irish before the Tudor conquest of Ireland it was introduced as the official language with the tutor and Cromwellian conquest s’ the Ulster plantations gave it a permanent foothold in Ulster and it remained the official and upper-class language elsewhere the Irish speaking chieftains and nobility having been deposed language shift during the 19th century replaced Irish with English as the first language for a vast majority of the population less than 10% of the population of the Republic of Ireland today speak Irish regularly outside of the education system and 38% of those over 15 years are classified as Irish speakers in Northern Ireland English as the de facto official language but official recognition is afforded to Irish including specific protective measures under part 3 of the European charter for regional or minority languages a lesser status including recognition under part 2 of the Charter is given to Ulster Scots dialects which are spoken by roughly 2% of Northern Ireland residents and also spoken by some in the Republic of Ireland since the 1960s with the increase in immigration many more languages have been introduced particularly deriving from Asia and Eastern Europe shelter the language of the nomadic Irish travelers is native to Ireland EPIK culture Ireland’s culture comprises elements of the culture of ancient peoples later immigrant and broadcast cultural influences chiefly Gaelic culture anglicisation Americanization and aspects of broader European culture in broad terms Ireland is regarded as one of the Celtic nations of Europe alongside Scotland Wales Cornwall Isle of Man and Brittany this combination of cultural influences is visible in the intricate designs termed Irish interlace or Celtic knotwork these can be seen in the ornamentation of medieval religious and secular works the style is still popular today in jewelry and graphic art as is the distinctive style of traditional Irish music and dance and has become indicative of modern Celtic culture in general religion has played a significant role in the cultural life of the island since ancient times and since the 17th century plantations has been the focus of political identity and divisions on the island Ireland’s pre-christian heritage fused with the Celtic Church following the missions of Saint Patrick in the 5th century the hybrid of Scottish missions begun by the Irish monk st.Columba spread the Irish vision of Christianity to pagan England and the Frankish Empire these missions brought written language to an illiterate population of Europe during the Dark Ages that followed the fall of Rome earning Ireland the sobriquet the island of saints and scholars since the 20th century the Irish pubs worldwide have become especially those with a full range of cultural and gastronomic offerings outposts of Irish culture the Republic of Ireland’s national theater as the Abbey Theatre which was founded in 1904 and the National Irish language theater as in tape dark which was established in 1928 in Galway playwrights such as Sean O’Casey Brian Friel Sebastian Berry Connor McPherson and Billy Roach are internationally renowned topic arts topic literature Ireland has made a large contribution to world literature in all its branches both in Irish and English poetry and Irish as among the oldest vernacular poetry in Europe with the earliest examples dating from the 6th century Irish remained the dominant literary language down to the 19th century despite the spread of English from the 17th century on prominent names from the medieval period and later include go free Finn o doll a 14th century day Bo brew Adair 17th century and a Ogando Raphael 18th century I blend Dubh nicho nail see 1743 see 1800 was an outstanding poet in the oral tradition the latter part of the 19th century saw rapid replacement of Irish by English by 1900 however cultural nationalists had begun the Gaelic revival which saw the beginnings of a modern literature in Irish this was to produce a number of notable writers including mayor to know cadion mayor MHA C&T s Aoi and others Irish language publishers such as Koch am and Chloe a arch onek continued to produce scores of titles every year in English Jonathan Swift the 30th of November 1667 to the 19th of October 1745 often called the foremost satirist in the English language gained fame for works such as Gulliver’s Travels in a modest proposal other notable 18th century writers of Irish origin included Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan though they spent most of their lives in England the Anglo Irish novel came to the fore in the 19th century featuring such writers as Charles Kickham William Carlton and in collaboration eateth Somerville and violet Florence Martin the playwright and poet Oscar Wilde noted for his epigrams was born in Ireland in the 20th century Ireland produced four winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature george bernard shaw william butler yeats samuel beckett and Seamus Heaney although not a Nobel Prize winner James Joyce is widely considered to be one of the most significant writers of the 20th century Joyce’s 1922 novel Ulysses is considered one of the most important works of modernist literature and his life is celebrated annually on the 16th of June in Dublin s Bloomsday a comparable writer in Irish as mayor Dano cadion whose novel crane aa steel is regarded as a modernist masterpiece and has been translated into several languages modern Irish literature is often connected with its rural heritage through english-language writers such as John McGowan and Seamus Heaney and Irish language writers such as mayor – no diary in’ and others from the gael tact topic music music has been in evidence in Ireland since prehistoric times although in the early Middle Ages the church was quite unlike its counterpart in continental Europe there was considerable interchange between monastic settlements in Ireland and the rest of Europe that contributed to what is known as Gregorian chant outside religious establishments musical genres in early Gaelic Ireland are referred to as a triad of weeping music gold traje laughing music gent rage and sleeping music suin traje vocal and instrumental music eg for the harp pipes and various string instruments was transmitted orally but the Irish harp in particular was of such significance that it became Ireland’s national symbol classical music following European models first developed in urban areas in establishments of Anglo Irish rules such as Dublin Castle st.Patrick’s Cathedral in Christchurch as well as the country houses of the Anglo Irish ascendancy with the first performance of Handel’s Messiah 17:42 being among the highlights of the Baroque era in the 19th century public concerts provided access to classical music to all classes of society yet for political and financial reasons Ireland has been too small to provide a living to many musicians so the names of the better-known Irish composers of this time belonged to emigrants Irish traditional music and dance has seen a surge in popularity and global coverage since the 1960s in the middle years of the 20th century as Irish society was modernizing traditional music had fallen out of favour especially in urban areas however during the 1960’s there was a revival of interest in Irish traditional music led by groups such as The Dubliners The Chieftains the wolf tones the Clancy Brothers Sweeney’s men and individuals like Sean O Reata and Christie Moore groups and musicians including Horse lips Van Morrison and Thin Lizzy incorporated elements of Irish traditional music into contemporary rock music and during the 1970s and 1980s the distinction between traditional and rock musicians became blurred with many individuals regularly crossing over between these styles of playing this trend can be seen more recently in the work of artists like Enya the Saw Doctors The Corrs Sinead O’Connor not the cranberries and the Pogues among others topic art the earliest known Irish graphic art and sculpture are Neolithic carvings found at sites such as Newgrange and is traced through Bronze Age artifacts and the religious carvings and illuminated manuscripts of the medieval period during the course of the 19th and 20th centuries a strong tradition of painting emerged including such figures as John Butler Yeats William or p’n Jack Yates and Lewis LeBrock we contemporary Irish visual artists of note include Sean Scully Kevin Abbas and Alice Mawr topic science the Irish philosopher and theologian Johannes SCOTUS err Eugenia was considered one of the leading intellectuals of the early Middle Ages Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton and Irish explorer was one of the principal figures of Antarctic exploration he along with his expedition made the first ascent of Mount Erebus and the discovery of the approximate location of the South Magnetic Pole Robert Boyle was a 17th century natural philosopher chemists physicists inventor and early gentlemen scientist he is largely regarded one of the founders of modern chemistry and is best known for the formulation of Boyle’s law 19th century physicist John Tyndall discovered the Tyndall effect father Nicholas Joseph Callan professor of natural philosophy in Maynooth College is best known for his invention of the induction coil transformer and he discovered an early method of galvanization in the 19th century other notable Irish physicists include Ernest Walton winner of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Physics with Sir John Douglas Cockcroft he was the first to split the nucleus of the atom by artificial means and made contributions to the development of a new theory of wave equation William Thomson or Lord Kelvin is the person whom the absolute temperature unit the kelvin is named after sir joseph larmor a physicist and mathematician made innovations in the understanding of electricity dynamics thermodynamics and the electron theory of matter his most influential work was ether and matter a book on theoretical physics published in 1900 Gorge Johnston Stoney introduced the term electron in 1891 John Stuart Bell was the originator of Bell’s Theorem and a paper concerning the discovery of the Bell Jack u Adler anomaly and was nominated for a Nobel Prize the astronomer Jocelyn Bell Burnell from Lurgan County Armagh discovered pulsars in 1967 notable mathematicians include Sir William Rowan Hamilton famous for work in classical mechanics and the invention of quaternions Francis Ysidro Edwards contribution of the Edgeworth box remains influential in neoclassical microeconomics Erie to this day while Richard Cantillon inspired Adam Smith among others John because gray was a specialist in number theory and discovered a 2,000 digit prime number in 1999 and a record composite Fermat number in 2003 John Lydon Singh made progress in different fields of science including mechanics and geometrical methods in general relativity he had mathematician John Nash as one of his students Kathleen Lonsdale born in Ireland and most known for her work with crystallography became the first female president of the British Association for the Advancement of science Ireland has nine universities seven in the Republic of Ireland and two in Northern Ireland including Trinity College Dublin and the University College Dublin as well as numerous third level colleges and institutes and a branch of the Open University the Open University in Ireland topic sports Gaelic football is the most popular sport in Ireland in terms of match attendance and community involvement with about 2600 clubs on the island in 2003 it represented 34 percent of total sports attendances at events in Ireland and abroad followed by hurling at 23 percent soccer at 16 percent and rugby at 8 percent the All Ireland football final is the most watched event in the sporting calendar soccer is the most widely played team game on the island and the most popular in Northern Ireland other sporting activities with the highest levels of playing participation include swimming golf aerobics cycling and billiards snooker many other sports are also played and followed including boxing cricket fishing greyhound racing handball hockey horse-racing motorsport show jumping in tennis the island fields a single international team in most sports one notable exception to this as association football although both associations continued to field international teams under the name Ireland until the 1950s the sport is also the most notable exception where the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland field separate international teams Northern Ireland has produced two World Snooker champions topic field-sports Gaelic football curling in handball are the best-known of the Irish traditional sports collectively known as Gaelic games Gaelic games are governed by the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA with the exception of ladies Gaelic football and camogie women’s variant of hurling which are governed by separate organizations the headquarters of the GAA and the main stadium is located at the 80 mm 500 capacity Croke Park in North Dublin many major GAA games are played there including the semifinals and finals of the all-ireland Senior Football Championship and all-ireland Senior Hurling Championship during the redevelopment of the Lansdowne Road Stadium in 2007 210 international rugby and soccer were played there all GAA players even at the highest level are amateurs receiving no wages although they are permitted to receive a limited amount of sport related income from commercial sponsorship the Irish Football Association IFA was originally the governing body for soccer across the island the game has been played in an organized fashion in Ireland since the 1870s with Cliftonville FC in Belfast being Ireland’s oldest club it was most popular especially in its first decades around Belfast and in Ulster however some clubs based outside Belfast thought that the IFA largely favored Ulster based clubs in such matters as selection for the national team in 1921 following an incident in which despite an earlier promise the IFA moved an Irish Cup semi-final replay from Dublin to Belfast Dublin based clubs broke away to form the Football Association of the Irish Free State today the Southern Association is known as the Football Association of Ireland FAI despite being initially blacklisted by the home nations associations the FAI was recognised by FIFA in 1923 and organized its first international fixture in 1926 against Italy however both the IFA and FAI continued to select their teams from the whole of Ireland with some players earning international caps for matches with both teams both also referred to their respective teams as Ireland in 1950 FIFA directed the association’s only to select players from within respective territories and in 1953 directed that the FAI steam be known only Asst Republic of Ireland and that the IFAs team be known as Northern Ireland with certain exceptions Northern Ireland qualified for the World Cup finals in 1958 reaching the quarterfinals 1982 in 1986 and the European Championship in 2016 the Republic qualified for the World Cup Finals in 1990 reaching the quarterfinals 1994 2002 in the European Championships in 1988 2012 and 2016 across Ireland there is significant interest in the English and to a lesser extent Scottish soccer leagues unlike soccer Ireland continues to field a single national rugby team and a single Association the Irish Rugby Football Union IRF you governs the sport across the island the Irish rugby team have played in every Rugby World Cup making the quarterfinals in six of them Ireland also hosted games during the 1991 and the 1999 Rugby World Cups including a quarterfinal there are four professional Irish teams all four play in the pro 14 and at least three compete for the Heineken Cup Irish rugby has become increasingly competitive at both the international and provincial levels since the sport went professional in 1994 during that time Ulster 1999 Munster 2006 and 2008 and lime stir 2009 2011 and 2012 of won the Heineken Cup in addition to this the Irish international side has had increased success in the Six Nations Championship against the other European elite sides this success including Triple Crowns in 2004 2006 in 2007 culminated with a clean sweep of victories known as a Grand Slam in 2009 and 2018 topic other sports horse racing and greyhound racing are both popular in Ireland there are frequent horse race meetings and greyhound stadiums are well attended the island is noted for the breeding and training of racehorses and is also a large exporter of racing dogs the horse racing sector is largely concentrated in the county kildare Irish athletics has seen a heightened success rate since the year 2000 with Sonya O’Sullivan winning two medals at 5000 meters on the track gold at the 1995 World Championships and silver at the 2000 Sydney Olympics Jillian O’Sullivan won silver in the 20k walk at the 2003 World Championships while Sprint hurdler durval O’Rourke won gold at the 2006 World Indoor Championship in Moscow olive Loughnane won a silver medal in the 20k walk in the World Athletics Championships in Berlin in 2009 Ireland has won more medals in boxing than in any other Olympic sport boxing is governed by the Irish Athletic Boxing Association Michael Carruth won a gold medal and Wayne McCullough won a silver medal in the Barcelona Olympic Games in 2008 Kenneth Eagan won a silver medal in the Beijing Games Patti Barnes secured bronze in those games in gold in the 2010 European amateur boxing championships where Ireland came second in the overall medal table in 2010 Commonwealth Games Katie Taylor has won gold in every European and World Championship since 2005 in August 2012 at the Olympic Games in London Katie Taylor created history by becoming the first Irish woman to win a gold medal in boxing in the 60 kilograms lightweight golf is very popular in golf tourism as a major industry attracting more than 240,000 golfing visitors annually the 2006 Ryder Cup was held at the K Club in County Kildare Padraig Harrington became the first Irishman since Fred Daley in 1947 to win the British opened at Carnoustie in July 2007 he successfully defended his title in July 2008 before going on to win the PGA Championship in August Harrington became the first European to win the PGA Championship in 78 years and was the first winner from Ireland three golfers from Knorr Ireland have been particularly successful in 2010 Graham McDowell became the first Irish golfer to win the US Open and the first European to win that tournament since 1970 Rory McIlroy at the age of 22 won the 2011 US Open while Darren Clarke’s latest victory was the 2011 Open Championship at Royal st.George’s in August 2012 McIlroy won his second major championship by winning the US PGA Championship by a record margin of eight shots topic recreation the west coast of ireland ‘la Hinch and Donegal Bay in particular the popular surfing beaches being fully exposed to the Atlantic Ocean Donegal Bay is shaped like a funnel and catches west-southwest Atlantic winds creating good surf especially in winter since just before the year 2010 Bundoran has hosted European Championship surfing scuba diving is increasingly popular in Ireland with clear waters and large populations of sea life particularly along the western seaboard there are also many shipwrecks along the coast of Ireland with some of the best wreck dives being in Malin Head and off the County Cork Coast with thousands of lakes over 14,000 kilometers eight thousand seven hundred miles of fish bearing rivers and over 3,700 kilometres 2,300 miles of coastline Ireland as a popular angling destination the temperate Irish climate is suited to sport angling while salmon and trout fishing remained popular with anglers salmon fishing in particular received a boost in 2006 with the closing of the salmon drift net fishery course fishing continues to increase its profile sea angling is developed with many beaches mapped and signposted and the range of sea angling species is around 80 topic food and drink food in cuisine in Ireland takes its influence from the crops grown and animals farmed in the islands temperate climate and from the social and political circumstances of Irish history for example whilst from the Middle Ages until the arrival of the potato in the 16th century the dominant feature of the Irish economy was the herding of cattle the number of cattle a person owned was equated to their social standing thus herders would avoid slaughtering a milk producing cow for this reason pork and white meat were more common than beef and thick fatty strips of salted bacon known as rashers and the eating of salted butter ie a dairy product rather than beef itself have been a central feature of the diet in ireland since the Middle Ages the practice of bleeding cattle and mixing the blood with milk and butter not unlike the practice of the Maasai was common in black pudding made from blood grain usually barley and seasoning remains a breakfast staple in ireland all of these influences can be seen today in the phenomenon of the breakfast roll the introduction of the potato in the second half of the 16th century heavily influenced cuisine there after great poverty encouraged a subsistence approach to food and by the mid 19th century the vast majority of the population sufficed with a diet of potatoes and milk a typical family consisting of a man a woman and four children would eat 18 stone 110 kilograms of potatoes a week consequently dishes that are considered as national dishes represent a fundamental unsophisticated to cooking such as the Irish stew bacon and cabbage Bucks D a type of potato pancake or colcannon a dish of mashed potatoes and kale or cabbage since the last quarter of the 20th century with a re-emergence of wealth in Ireland a new Irish cuisine based on traditional ingredients incorporating international influences has emerged this cuisine is based on fresh vegetables fish especially salmon trout oysters mussels and other shellfish as well as traditional soda breads and the wide range of handmade cheeses that are now being produced across the country an example of this new cuisine –is Dublin Lawyer lobster cooked in whiskey and cream the potato remains however a fundamental feature of this cuisine and the Irish remained the highest per-capita consumers of potatoes in Europe traditional regional foods can be found throughout the country for example coddled in Dublin or drishya in Cork both a type of sausage or B la a a doughy white bread particular to Waterford Ireland once dominated the world’s market for whiskey producing 90% of the world’s whiskey at the start of the 20th century however as a consequence of bootleggers during the Prohibition in the United States who sold poor quality whiskey bearing Irish sounding names thus eroding the pre-prohibition popularity for Irish brands and tariffs on Irish whiskey across the British Empire during the Anglo Irish trade war of the 1930s sales of Irish whiskey worldwide fell to a mere 2% by the mid 20th century in 1953 an Irish government survey found that 50% of whiskey drinkers in the United States had never heard of Irish whiskey Irish whiskey as researched in 2009 by the CNBC American broadcaster remains popular domestic has grown in international sales steadily over a few decades typically CNBC states Irish whiskey is not as smoky as a scotch whiskey but not as sweet as American or Canadian whiskies whiskey forms the basis of traditional cream liqueurs such as Bailey’s in the Irish Coffee a cocktail of coffee and whiskey reputedly invented at fines flying boat station is probably the best-known Irish cocktail stout a kind of Porter beer particularly Guinness is typically associated with Ireland although historically it was more closely associated with London Porter remains very popular although it has lost sales since the mid 20th century to lager cider particularly Magners marketed in the Republic of Ireland as Balmer’s is also a popular drink red lemonade a soft drink is consumed on its own and as a mixer particularly with whiskey topic see also you Irish States since 1171 list of divided islands list of Ireland related topics list of islands of Ireland list of Irish people topic notes topic references topic bibliography topic external links you wikimedia atlas of ireland government of Ireland Northern Ireland Executive


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