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Andaman Islands | Wikipedia audio article

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The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India to the west and Myanmar to the north and east most are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory of India while a small number in the north of the archipelago including the Koko Islands belong to Myanmar the Andaman Islands are home to the Andamanese a group of indigenous peoples including the Sentinelese who have had little contact with any other people topic history topic etymology the name of the Andaman Islands is ancient a theory that became prevalent in the late 19th century is that it derives from Andaman a form of Hanuman the Sanskrit name of the Indian Monkey God another Italian traveller nickelodeon d ce 1440 mentioned the islands and said that the name means island of gold you topic early inhabitants the earliest archaeological evidence yet documented goes back some 2200 years however the indications from genetic cultural and isolation studies suggest that the islands may have been inhabited as early as the middle Paleolithic the indigenous Andamanese people appeared to have lived on the islands in substantial isolation from that time until the 18th century CE II the Andamans are theorized to be a key stepping stone in a great coastal migration of humans from Africa via the Arabian Peninsula along the coastal regions of the Indian mainland and towards Southeast Asia Japan and Oceania topic chola empire from 800 to 1200 seee the tamil chola dynasty created an empire that eventually extended from southeastern peninsular India to parts of Malaysia Rajendra Chola the first 1014 to 1042 C II took over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands topic British colonization and penal colony in 1789 the Bengal presidency established a naval base and penal colony on Chatham Island in the southeast Bay of great Andaman the settlement is now known as port blair after the Bombay marine lieutenant Archibald Blair who founded it after two years the colony was moved to the northeast part of great Andaman and was named port Cornwallis after Admiral William Cornwallis however there was much disease and death in the penal colony and the government ceased operating it in May 1796 in 1824 port Cornwallis was the rendezvous of the fleet carrying the army to the first Burmese war in the 1830s and 1840s shipwrecked crews who landed on the Andamans were often attacked and killed by the natives and the islands had a reputation for cannibalism the loss of the runnymede and the Britain in 1844 during the same storm while transporting goods and passengers between India and Australia and the continuous attacks launched by the natives which the survivors fought off alarmed the British government in 1855 the government proposed another settlement on the islands including a convict establishment but the Indian rebellion of 1857 forced a delay in its construction however because the rebellion gave the British so many prisoners it made the new Andaman settlement and prison urgently necessary construction began in November 1857 at Port Blair using inmates labour avoiding the vicinity of a salt swamp that seemed to have been the source of many of the earlier problems at Port Cornwallis the 17th of May 1859 was another major day for Andaman the Battle of Aberdeen Andaman Islands was fought between the great Andaman East tribe and the British today a memorial stands in Andaman water Sports Complex as a tribute to the people who lost their lives fearing foreign invasion and with help from an escaped convict from cellular jail the great Andaman East tribe stormed the British post but they were outnumbered and soon suffered heavy loss of life later it was identified that an escaped convict named Judith had changed sides and informed the British about the tribes plans today the tribe has been reduced to some 50 people with less than 50% of them adults the government of Andaman Islands is making efforts to increase the headcount this tribe in 1867 the ship Nineveh wrecked on the reef of North Sentinel island the eighty-six survivors reached the beach in the ship’s boats on the third day they were attacked with iron tips spears by naked islanders one person from the ship escaped in a boat and the others were later rescued by a British Royal Navy ship for some time sickness and mortality were high but swamp reclamation and extensive forest clearance continued the Andaman Colony became notorious with the murder of the Viceroy Richard Southwell Burke 6th Earl of mayo on a visit to the settlement the 8th of February 1872 by a Muslim convict a Pathan from Afghanistan Sher Ali Afridi in the same year the two island groups Andaman and Nicobar were united under a chief commissioner residing at Port Blair from the time of its development in 1858 under the direction of James Pattison Walker and in response to the mutiny and rebellion of the previous year the settlement was first and foremost a repository for political prisoners the cellular jail at Port Blair when completed in 1910 included 698 cells designed for solitary confinement each cell measured four point five by 2.7 meters 15 by 9 feet with a single ventilation window 3 metres 10 feet above the floor a notable prisoner there was Vinayak Damodar Savarkar the Indians imprisoned here referred to the island and its prison as kala pani Blackwater a 1996 film set on the island took that term as its title kala pani the number of prisoners who died in this camp is estimated to be in the thousands many more died of harsh treatment and the harsh living and working conditions in this camp the viper chain gang jail on Viper Island was reserved for troublemakers and was also the site of hangings in the 20th century it became a convenient place to house prominent members of India’s independence movement topic Japanese occupation the Andaman and Nicobar Islands were occupied by Japan during World War two the islands were nominally put under the authority of the arsy who committee Azad hind provisional government of free India headed by Subash Chandra Bose who visited the islands during the war and renamed them as Shaheed martyr and Swaraj self-rule on the 30th December 1943 during the Japanese occupation Bose who was allied with the Japanese first raised the flag of Indian independence general Logue anathan of the Indian National Army was governor of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands which had been annexed to the provisional government according to Werner gruel before leaving the islands the Japanese rounded up and executed 750 innocents after the end of the war the islands returned to British control before becoming part of the newly independent state of India at the close of World War two the British government announced its intention to abolish the penal settlement the government proposed to employ former inmates in an initiative to develop the islands fisheries timber and agricultural resources in exchange inmates would be granted return passage to the Indian mainland or the right to settle on the islands the penal colony was eventually closed on the 15th of August 1947 when India gained independence it has since served as a museum to the independence movement topic recent history in April 1998 American photographer John s Callahan organized the first surfing project in the Andamans starting from Phuket in Thailand with the assistance of Southeast Asia liveaboards seal a UK owned dive charter company with a crew of international professional surfers they crossed the Andaman Sea on the yacht Crescent and cleared formalities in Port Blair the group proceeded to little Andaman Island where they spent 10 days surfing several spots for the first time including jera wah near Hutt Bay in the long ripe reef point at the southwest tip of the island named Kumari Point the resulting article in Surfer magazine quest for fire by journalist Sam George put the Andaman Islands on the surfing map for the first time footage of the waves of the Andaman Islands also appeared in the film thicker than water shot by documentary filmmaker Jack Johnson who later achieved worldwide fame as a popular musician Callaghan went on to make several more surfing projects in the Andamans including a trip to the Nicobar Islands in 1999 on the 26th of December 2004 the coast of the Andaman Islands was devastated by a 10 metre 33 feet high tsunami following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake which is the longest recorded earthquake lasting for between 500 and 600 seconds strong oral traditions in the area warned of the importance of moving inland after a quake and is credited with saving many lives in the aftermath more than 2,000 people were confirmed dead and more than 4,000 children were orphaned or had lost one parent at least 40,000 residents were rendered homeless and were moved to relief camps on the 11th of August 2009 a magnitude 7 earthquake struck near the Andaman Islands causing a tsunami warning to go into effect on the 30th of March 2010 a magnitude six point nine earthquake struck near the Andaman Islands topic geography the Andaman archipelago is an oceanic continuation of the Burma’s Rakhine youma range in the north and of the Indonesian archipelago in the south it has 325 islands which cover an area of 6400 8 square kilometers 2474 square miles with the Andaman Sea to the east between the islands and the coast of Burma North Andaman Island as 285 kilometres 177 miles south of Burma although a few smaller Burmese islands are closer including the three Koko Islands the 10-degree Channel separates the Andamans from the Nicobar Islands to the south the highest point is located in North Andaman Island saddle peak at 732 metres 2,400 two feet the subsoil of the Andaman Islands consists essentially of late jurassic – early Eocene ophiolite ease and sedimentary rocks are Galatia sand algal lime stones deformed by numerous deep faults and thrusts with ultramafic igneous intrusions there are at least eleven mud volcanoes on the islands the climate is typical of tropical islands of similar latitude it is always warm but with sea breezes rainfall is irregular usually dry during the Northeast and very wet during the Southwest monsoons topic flora the middle andamans harbour mostly moist deciduous forests North Andamans is characterized by the wet evergreen type with plenty of woody climbers the natural vegetation of the Andamans as tropical forests with mangroves on the coast the rainforests are similar in composition to those of the west coast of Burma most of the forests are evergreen but there are areas of deciduous forests on North Andaman middle Andaman Barratt and parts of South Andaman Island the South Andaman forests have the profuse growth of epiphytic vegetation mostly ferns and orchids the Andaman forests are largely unspoiled despite logging and the demands of the fast-growing population driven by emigration from the Indian mainland there are protected areas on little Andaman gnarrk andum North Andaman and South Andaman but these are mainly aimed at preserving the coast in the marine wildlife rather than the rainforests threats to wildlife come from introduced species including rats dogs cats and the elephants of interview Island and North Andaman topic Timbre and Amman forests contain 200 or more timber producing species of trees out of which about 30 varieties are considered to be commercial major commercial timber species are gergan dipped pterocarpus SPP and padauk pterocarpus dalbergia DS the following ornamental woods are noted for their pronounced grain formation marble wood diospyros maar Mirada padauk pterocarpus dalbergia deez silver-gray a special formation of wood in white Okarche Chui say Draya elliptic a Coco albezia Levesque padauk wood is sturdier than teak and is widely used for furniture making their arbor wood and buttress root formations in Andaman padauk the largest piece of buttress known from Andaman was a dining table of 13 feet x 7 feet 4.0 meters times two point one meters the largest piece of Burwood was again a dining table for ate the holy Rudraksha elia carps farkas and aromatic do present trees also are found here topic fauna the Andaman Islands are home to a number of animals many of them endemic topic mammals the islands endemic mammals include Andaman spiny shrew crow Sidora hiss PETA andaman shrew crow Sidora andaman ANSYS jenkins shrew crow Sidora jenkins e andaman horseshoe bat rhine all of his cognate Asst andaman rat Rattus stoic Asst the banded pig sous scrofa vittatus also known as the andaman wild boar and once thought to be an endemic subspecies is protected by the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 schi the spotted deer axis axis the Indian muntjac montiek hiss muntjac and the sambar Russa unicolor were all introduced to the Andaman Islands though the sambar did not survive interview Island the largest Wildlife Sanctuary in the territory in middle Andaman holds a population of feral elephants which were brought in for forest work by a timber company and released when the company went bankrupt this population has been subject to research studies topic birds endemic or near endemic birds include spill or nacelle guinea a serpent eagle rally knack a nene a craic endemic data deficient / IUCN 2000 call em the Palumbo Dee’s a wood pigeon macro PG a roofie pennis a cuckoo dove central piss Andaman Ensis the subspecies of Brown Google endemic Otis Bali thus cops owl EXIF any a hawk owl right Aceros narc and ami the NAR condemned hornbill dry octopus hijae a woodpecker Deker sandeman Ensis a drago Dendera Sita Bailey a tree P sternness erythro PGs the white headed Starling kalokhe Elia Finney the plume toad swiftlet aerodrome is fuchsia Figgis the edible nest Swift let islands many caves such as those at chalice a car nesting grounds for the edible nest swiftlet whose nests are prized in China for bird’s nest soup topic reptiles and amphibians the islands also have a number of endemic reptiles toads and frogs such as the South Andaman Krait bungarus Andaman insist an Andaman Water Monitor Varanus Salvator Andaman Ensis there is a sanctuary 45 miles 72 kilometers from have Lough Island for saltwater crocodiles over the past 25 years there have been 24 crocodile attacks with 4 fatalities including the death of American tourists Lauren phylla the government has been criticized for failing to inform tourists of the crocodile sanctuary in danger while simultaneously promoting tourism crocodiles are not only found within the sanctuary but throughout the island chain in varying densities they are habitat restricted so the population is stable but not large populations occur throughout available mangrove habitat on all major islands including a few creeks on Havelock the species uses the ocean as a means of travel between different rivers and estuaries thus they are not as commonly observed in open ocean it is best to avoid swimming near mangrove areas or the mouths of creeks swimming in the open ocean should be safe but it is best to have a spotter around topic religion most of the tribal people in Andaman and Nicobar Islands believe in a religion that can be described as a form of monotheistic animism the tribal people of these islands believe that palooka is the only deity and is responsible for everything happening on earth the faith of the Andamanese teaches that palooka resides on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Saddle Peak people try to avoid any action that might displease palooka people belonging to this religion believe in the presence of souls ghosts and spirits people of this religion put a lot of emphasis on dreams they let dreams decide different courses of action in their lives other religions practiced in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are in order of size Hinduism Christianity Islam Sikhism Buddhism Jainism and Baha’i faith topic demographics as of 2011 the population of the Andaman was 340 3125 having grown from 50,000 in 1960 the bulk of the population originates from immigrants who came to the island since the colonial times mainly of Bengali Hindustani and Tamil backgrounds topic indigenous Andamanese of the people who live in the Andaman Islands a small minority of about 1000 are the so-called Andamanese the aboriginal inhabitants Adivasi of the islands by the 1850s when they first came into sustained contact by outside groups there were estimated 7,000 Andamanese divided into the following major groups great Andamanese jera wa jangle or Rutland gerawan on Sentinel easy as the numbers of settlers from the mainland increased at first mostly prisoners and involuntary indentured labourers later purposely recruited farmers these indigenous people lost territory and numbers in the face of punitive expeditions by British troops landing croch mint and various epidemic diseases presently there remain only approximately 400 to 450 indigenous Andamanese the jangle were soon extinct the great andamanese were originally ten distinct tribes with 5000 people in total most of the tribes are extinct and the survivors now just 52 speak mostly Hindi the odds are reduced to less than 100 people only the gerawan and Sentinelese still maintain a steadfast independence and refuse most attempts at contact their numbers are uncertain but estimated to be in the low hundreds topic government port blair is the chief community on the islands and the administrative center of the union territory the Andaman Islands form a single administrative district within the Union Territory the Andaman district the Nicobar Islands were separated and established as the new Nicobar district in 1974 topic cultural references the islands are prominently featured in Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes mystery the sign of the four as well as in mm Ches death in the Andamans the magistrate in lady Gregory’s place spreading the news had formerly served in the islands Marianne Wiggins novel John dollar 1989 is set on one of the islands the characters begin an expedition from Burma to celebrate King George’s birthday and after an earthquake and tsunami it becomes a grim survival story a principal character in the book six suspects by Vikas Swarup is from the Andaman Islands kala pani Malayalam and sir each Ally Tamil a 1996 Indian film by priyadarshan depicts the Indian freedom struggle and the lives of prisoners in the cellular jail in Port Blair islands end as a 2011 novel by Padma Venkatraman about the training of an indigenous Shaymin topic transportation the only commercial airport in the islands as veer Savarkar International Airport in Port Blair which has scheduled services to Kolkata Chennai New Delhi Bangalore Visakhapatnam in boo banished where the airport is under the control of the Indian Navy previously only daylight operations were allowed but since the beginning of 2016 night flights have also operated a small airstrip of approximately 1,000 meters is located near the Eastern Shore of North Andaman near Dilli poor a ship service also available from Chennai Visakhapatnam in Kolkata but ship journey covered two nights in three days depend on the climate due to the length of the routes and a small number of airlines flying to the islands fares have traditionally been relatively expensive although cheaper for locals than visitors fares are high during the peak seasons of spring and winter although fares have decreased over time due to the expansion of the civil aviation industry in India topics see also endemic birds of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands list of trees of the Andaman Islands lists of islands Nicobar Islands topic references notes sources this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Andaman Islands encyclopaedia britannica 111th ed Cambridge University Press pp 955 to 958 history and culture the Andaman Islands with destination quite India home department 1859 the Andaman Islands with notes on Barren Island CB Lewis Baptist mission press topic external links Andaman best travel agency website official Andaman and Nicobar tourism website Andaman district official site Sorensen a Richard 1993 sensuality and consciousness psychosexual transformation in the eastern Andaman anthropology of consciousness four four one two nine doy ten point one five two five AC 1990 three point four point four dot one sin satoru 2009 savage bodies civilized pleasures MV Portman and the andamanese American ethnologist 36 2 364 – 379 joy ten point one one one one J point one five four eight to 1425 point two zero zero nine point zero one one four zero X

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